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The Phonetics of Babbling  

Susan Rvachew and Abdulsalam Alhaidary

Published Online:
Feb 2018
Babbling is made up of meaningless speechlike syllables called canonical syllables. Canonical syllables are characterized by the coordination of consonantal and vocalic elements in ... More

Phonetics of Consonants  

Susanne Fuchs and Peter Birkholz

Published Online:
Jul 2019
Consonants are a major class of sounds occurring in all human languages. Typologically, consonant inventories are richer than vowel inventories. Consonants have been classified according ... More

Phonetics of Singing in Western Classical Style  

Johan Sundberg

Published Online:
Jun 2018
The function of the voice organ is basically the same in classical singing as in speech. However, loud orchestral accompaniment has necessitated the use of the voice in an economical way. ... More

Phonetics of Vowels  

Christine Ericsdotter Nordgren

Published Online:
Mar 2019
Speech sounds are commonly divided into two main categories in human languages: vowels, such as ‘e’, ‘a’, ‘o’, and consonants, such as ‘k’, ‘n’, ‘s’. This division is made on the basis of ... More

Phonological and Morphological Aspects of Reduplication  

Suzanne Urbanczyk

Published Online:
Mar 2017
Reduplication is a word-formation process in which all or part of a word is repeated to convey some form of meaning. A wide range of patterns are found in terms of both the form and ... More

Phonological Inventories  

Steven Moran

Published Online:
Apr 2019
A phonological inventory is a repertoire of contrastive articulatory or manual gestures shared by a community of users. Whether spoken or signed, all human languages have a phonological ... More

Phonological Templates in Development  

Marilyn May Vihman

Published Online:
Dec 2016
Child phonological templates are idiosyncratic word production patterns. They can be understood as deriving, through generalization of patterning, from the very first words of the child, ... More

Phonological Variation and Change in Italian  

Alessandro Vietti

Published Online:
Feb 2019
The phonology of Italian is subject to considerable variability both at the segmental and at the prosodic level. Changes affect different features of the phonological system such as the ... More

Pidgin Languages  

Mikael Parkvall

Pidgin languages sometimes form in contact situations where a means of communication is urgently needed between groups lacking a common code. They are typically less elaborate than any of ... More

Pidgins and Creoles  

John McWhorter

Creole languages have mostly resulted from interactions between Europeans and subordinated peoples amid colonization, trade, and imperialism. Given that the creation of these languages was ... More

Pitch Accent in Korean  

Chiyuki Ito and Michael J. Kenstowicz

Published Online:
Mar 2017
Typologically, pitch-accent languages stand between stress languages like Spanish and tone languages like Shona, and share properties of both. In a stress language, typically just one ... More

The Playful Lexicon in the Romance Languages: Onomatopoeia, Reduplication, Prosodic Templates, Blending  

David Pharies

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics. Please check back later for the full article. We ... More

Polarity in the Semantics of Natural Language  

Anastasia Giannakidou

Published Online:
Sep 2017
This paper provides an overview of polarity phenomena in human languages. There are three prominent paradigms of polarity items: negative polarity items (NPIs), positive polarity items ... More

Politeness in Pragmatics  

Dániel Z. Kádár

Published Online:
Mar 2017
Subject:
Pragmatics
Politeness comprises linguistic and non-linguistic behavior through which people indicate that they take others’ feelings of how they should be treated into account. Politeness comes into ... More

Polysemy  

Agustín Vicente and Ingrid L. Falkum

Published Online:
Jul 2017
Polysemy is characterized as the phenomenon whereby a single word form is associated with two or several related senses. It is distinguished from monosemy, where one word form is ... More

Polysynthesis: A Diachronic and Typological Perspective  

Michael Fortescue

Polysynthesis is informally understood as the packing of a large number of morphemes into single words, as in (1) from Bininj Gun-wok (Evans, in press).1) ... More

Pragmatics and Intonation  

Brady Clark

Published Online:
Mar 2017
Subject:
Pragmatics
Intonation impacts pragmatic meaning. A range of empirical evidence shows that the pragmatic functions of intonation are specifiable. The dimensions of meaning impacted by intonation ... More

Pragmatics and Language Evolution  

Marieke Woensdregt and Kenny Smith

Published Online:
Mar 2017
Pragmatics is the branch of linguistics that deals with language use in context. It looks at the meaning linguistic utterances can have beyond their literal meaning (implicature), and also ... More

Pragmatics of Focus  

Jon Scott Stevens

Published Online:
Mar 2017
Subject:
Pragmatics
Generally speaking, ‘focus’ refers to the portion of an utterance which is especially informative or important within the context, and which is marked as such via some linguistic means. It ... More

Prescriptive Attitudes to English Usage  

Ingrid Tieken-Boon van Ostade and Carmen Ebner

Taking a sociolinguistic approach to prescriptivism in English usage, this article presents different methods by which highly frequent usage problems can be analyzed as to their current ... More

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