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The Motor Theory of Speech Perception  

D. H. Whalen

Online publication date:
Aug 2019
The Motor Theory of Speech Perception is a proposed explanation of the fundamental relationship between the way speech is produced and the way it is perceived. Associated primarily with the ... More

Multilingualism in Rural Africa  

Pierpaolo Di Carlo, Jeff Good, and Rachel Ojong Diba

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
The pervasiveness of multilingualism throughout the African continent has led it to be viewed as Africa’s “lingua franca.” Nevertheless, sociolinguistic research on this topic has ... More

Multi-Word Expressions and Morphology  

Francesca Masini

Online publication date:
Sep 2019
Subject:
Morphology
Multi-word expressions are linguistic objects formed by two or more words that behave like a ‘unit’ by displaying formal and/or functional idiosyncratic properties with respect to free word ... More

Munda Languages  

Gregory D. S. Anderson

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
The Munda language family constitutes the westernmost branch of the widespread Austroasiatic language family. Munda formerly was considered sister to the rest of the phylum, then known as ... More

Muskogean Languages  

Jack B. Martin

Online publication date:
May 2017
The Muskogean languages are a family of languages indigenous to the southeastern United States. Members of the family include Chickasaw, Choctaw, Alabama, Koasati, Apalachee, ... More

Natural Language Ontology  

Friederike Moltmann

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Subject:
Semantics
Natural language ontology is a branch of both metaphysics and linguistic semantics. Its aim is to uncover the ontological categories, notions, and structures that are implicit in the use of ... More

Natural Morphology  

Wolfgang U. Dressler

Online publication date:
May 2019
Subject:
Morphology
Natural Morphology (NM) is a functionalist theory that aims to account for morphological preferences on the basis of extralinguistic motivations. It is hierarchically structured in three ... More

The Nature of Productivity (Including Word Formation Versus Creative Coining)  

Andrew Spencer

Online publication date:
Nov 2019
Subject:
Morphology
The term productivity most commonly applies to word formation, but in principle it can be applied to any linguistic process. A process is said to be productive if it applies without ... More

The Nature of Subtractive Processes in Morphology  

Kazutaka Kurisu

Online publication date:
Jun 2020
This article discusses several important phonological issues concerning subtractive processes in morphology. First, this article addresses the scope of subtractive processes that linguistic ... More

Negation in Morphology  

Karen De Clercq

Online publication date:
Apr 2020
Negative markers are not a uniform category. They come in various types and, depending on their type, they take scope over a clause, a phrase, or just a word. Low scope negative markers ... More

Network Morphology  

Andrew Hippisley

Online publication date:
Apr 2020
The morphological machinery of a language is at the service of syntax, but the service can be poor. A request may result in the wrong item (deponency), or in an item the syntax already has ... More

Neurolinguistic Approaches in Morphology  

Niels O. Schiller

Online publication date:
Apr 2020
Neurolinguistic approaches to morphology include the main theories of morphological representation and processing in the human mind, such as full-listing, full-parsing, and hybrid ... More

Nikolai Trubetzkoy  

Edwin L. Battistella

Online publication date:
Jan 2017
Nikolai Trubetzkoy (1890–1938) was a Russian émigré scholar who settled in Austria in 1922, serving as Head of Slavic Linguistics at the University of Vienna and participating in the Prague ... More

Noam Chomsky  

Howard Lasnik and Terje Lohndal

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
Noam Avram Chomsky is one of the central figures of modern linguistics. He was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on December 7, 1928. In 1945, Chomsky enrolled in the University of ... More

Nominalization: General Overview and Theoretical Issues  

Rochelle Lieber

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
Nominalization refers both to the process by which complex nouns are created and to the complex nouns that are derived by that process. Nominalizations common in the languages of the world ... More

Nominal Reference  

Donka Farkas

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
Subject:
Semantics
Nominal reference is central to both linguistic semantics and philosophy of language. On the theoretical side, both philosophers and linguists wrestle with the problem of how the link ... More

Non-Quantitative Approaches to Dialect Classification and Relatedness  

Marcello Barbato

Several attempts have been made to classify Romance languages. The subgroups created can be posited as intermediate entities in diachrony between a mother language and daughter languages. ... More

Noun-Modifying Clause Construction in Japanese  

Yoshiko Matsumoto

The noun-modifying clause construction (NMCC) in Japanese is a complex noun phrase in which a prenominal clause is dependent on the head noun. Naturally occurring instances of the ... More

Number in Language  

Paolo Acquaviva

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Number is the category through which languages express information about the individuality, numerosity, and part structure of what we speak about. As a linguistic category it has a ... More

Numerals in Morphology  

Ljuba N. Veselinova

Online publication date:
Mar 2020
This article provides an overview of approaches to numerals within the field of morphology. As is well known, any strict separation between morphology, semantics and syntax is hardly ... More

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