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Old and Middle Japanese  

Bjarke Frellesvig

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
Old and Middle Japanese are the pre-modern periods of the attested history of the Japanese language. Old Japanese (OJ) is largely the language of the 8th century, with a modest, but still ... More

The Onomasiological Approach  

Jesús Fernández-Domínguez

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
The onomasiological approach is a theoretical framework that emphasizes the cognitive-semantic component of language and the primacy of extra-linguistic reality in the process of naming. ... More

Origins of the Japanese Language  

Alexander Vovin

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
The Northeast Asia is one of the unique points on the globe where there are many language isolates and portmanteau families. From a conservative point of view, the Japanese language is a ... More

Overabundance in Morphology  

Anna M. Thornton

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Overabundance is the situation in which two (or more) inflectional forms are available to realize the same cell in the inflectional paradigm of a lexeme (i.e., to express the meaning ... More

Paradigm Function Morphology: Assumptions and Innovations  

Gregory Stump

Online publication date:
Apr 2020
Paradigm Function Morphology (PFM) is an evolving approach to modeling morphological systems in a precise and enlightening way. The fundamental insight of PFM is that words have both ... More

Paradigms in Morphology  

Petar Milin and James P. Blevins

Online publication date:
Mar 2020
Studies of the structure and function of paradigms are as old as the Western grammatical tradition. The central role accorded to paradigms in traditional approaches largely reflects the ... More

Parasynthesis in Morphology  

Claudio Iacobini

Online publication date:
Jan 2020
Subject:
Morphology
The term parasynthesis is mainly used in modern theoretical linguistics in the meaning introduced by Arsène Darmesteter (1874) to refer to denominal or deadjectival prefixed verbs of the ... More

Participial Relative Clauses  

Petra Sleeman

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Subject:
Syntax
Relative clauses of which the predicate contains a present, past, or passive participle can be used in a reduced form. Although it has been shown that participial relative clauses cannot ... More

Parts of Speech, Lexical Categories, and Word Classes in Morphology  

Jaklin Kornfilt

Online publication date:
Jan 2020
Subject:
Morphology
The term “part of speech” is a traditional one that has been in use since grammars of Classical Greek (e.g., Dionysius Thrax) and Latin were compiled; for all practical purposes, it is ... More

Passives and Syntax  

Artemis Alexiadou

Online publication date:
May 2017
Subject:
Syntax
Cross-linguistic differences in passive formation and the differences between verbal and adjectival passives reveal some of the core properties of the passive. In earlier stages of the ... More

Penutian Languages  

Anthony P. Grant

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
The Penutian language family, Penutian phylum, or better still, Penutian hypothesis is one of the largest genealogical linguistic groupings to have been proposed for western North America. ... More

Personal Nouns (Agent Nouns) in the Romance Languages  

Riccardo Regis

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics. Please check back later for the full article. As far ... More

Personal/Participant/Inhabitant in Morphology  

Marios Andreou

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
The category of Personal/Participant/Inhabitant derived nouns comprises a conglomeration of derived nouns that denote among others agents, instruments, patients/themes, inhabitants, and ... More

Phonetic Detail and Phonetic Gradience in Morphological Processes  

Patrycja Strycharczuk

Online publication date:
Dec 2019
Subject:
Morphology
It is uncontroversial that morphological processes can change phonological surface representations. However, some empirical evidence also suggests that morphological processes may trigger ... More

Phonetics  

D. H. Whalen

Online publication date:
Jul 2019
Phonetics is the branch of linguistics that deals with the physical realization of meaningful distinctions in spoken language. Phoneticians study the anatomy and physics of sound ... More

The Phonetics of Babbling  

Susan Rvachew and Abdulsalam Alhaidary

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Babbling is made up of meaningless speechlike syllables called canonical syllables. Canonical syllables are characterized by the coordination of consonantal and vocalic elements in ... More

Phonetics of Consonants  

Susanne Fuchs and Peter Birkholz

Online publication date:
Jul 2019
Consonants are a major class of sounds occurring in all human languages. Typologically, consonant inventories are richer than vowel inventories. Consonants have been classified according to ... More

Phonetics of Singing in Western Classical Style  

Johan Sundberg

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
The function of the voice organ is basically the same in classical singing as in speech. However, loud orchestral accompaniment has necessitated the use of the voice in an economical way. ... More

Phonetics of Vowels  

Christine Ericsdotter Nordgren

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Speech sounds are commonly divided into two main categories in human languages: vowels, such as ‘e’, ‘a’, ‘o’, and consonants, such as ‘k’, ‘n’, ‘s’. This division is made on the basis of ... More

Phonological and Morphological Aspects of Reduplication  

Suzanne Urbanczyk

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Reduplication is a word-formation process in which all or part of a word is repeated to convey some form of meaning. A wide range of patterns are found in terms of both the form and meaning ... More

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