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Semantic Theories of Questions  

Floris Roelofsen

Online publication date:
Oct 2019
This survey article discusses two basic issues that semantic theories of questions face. The first is how to conceptualize and formally represent the semantic content of questions. This ... More

Sex-Denoting Patterns of Word Formation in the Romance Languages  

Franz Rainer

Online publication date:
Jul 2020
Since sex distinctions are a basic fact of nature and society, any natural language must make available means to refer separately to males and females of humans as well as animals, to the ... More

Sign Language Phonology  

Diane Brentari, Jordan Fenlon, and Kearsy Cormier

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
Sign language phonology is the abstract grammatical component where primitive structural units are combined to create an infinite number of meaningful utterances. Although the notion of ... More

Social Network Approach in African Sociolinguistics  

Klaus Beyer and Henning Schreiber

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
The Social Network Analysis approach (SNA), also known as sociometrics or actor-network analysis, investigates social structure on the basis of empirically recorded social ties between ... More

Sociolinguistics  

Christine Mallinson

Online publication date:
Nov 2015
The study of sociolinguistics constitutes a vast and complex topic that has yielded an extensive and multifaceted body of scholarship. Language is fundamentally at work in how we operate as ... More

Spanish in Contact with South-American Languages, with Special Emphasis on Andean and Paraguayan Spanish  

Fernando Zúñiga

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
The effect of indigenous languages of South America on Spanish is strongest in the lexicon (especially with toponyms, zoonyms, and phytonyms) and identifiable, but much more modest, in ... More

Speech Acts  

Mitchell Green

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Subject:
Pragmatics
Speech acts are acts that can, but need not, be carried out by saying and meaning that one is doing so. Many view speech acts as the central units of communication, with phonological, ... More

Speech Perception and Generalization Across Talkers and Accents  

Kodi Weatherholtz and T. Florian Jaeger

Online publication date:
Dec 2016
The seeming ease with which we usually understand each other belies the complexity of the processes that underlie speech perception. One of the biggest computational challenges is that ... More

Speech Perception in Phonetics  

Patrice Speeter Beddor

Online publication date:
Jan 2017
In their conversational interactions with speakers, listeners aim to understand what a speaker is saying, that is, they aim to arrive at the linguistic message, which is interwoven with ... More

The Status of the Morpheme  

Tom Leu

Online publication date:
Feb 2020
The morpheme was the central notion in morphological theorizing in the 20th century. It has a very intuitive appeal as the indivisible and invariant unit of form and meaning, a minimal ... More

The Status of Heads in Morphology  

Beata Moskal and Peter W. Smith

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Headedness is a pervasive phenomenon throughout different components of the grammar, which fundamentally encodes an asymmetry between two or more items, such that one is in some sense more ... More

Stem Change (Apophony and Consonant Mutation) in Morphology  

Thomas W. Stewart

Online publication date:
Apr 2020
Segment-level alternations that realize morphological properties or that have other morphological significance stand either at an interface or along a continuum between phonology and ... More

Subordinate and Synthetic Compounds in Morphology  

Chiara Melloni

Online publication date:
Jun 2020
Subject:
Morphology
Subordinate and synthetic represent well-attested modes of compounding across languages. Although the two classes exhibit some structural and interpretative analogies cross-linguistically, ... More

Subtraction in Morphology  

Stela Manova

Subtraction consists in shortening the shape of the word. It operates on morphological bases such as roots, stems, and words in word-formation and inflection. Cognitively, subtraction is ... More

Suppletion  

Ljuba N. Veselinova

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
The term suppletion is used to indicate the unpredictable encoding of otherwise regular semantic or grammatical relations. Standard examples in English include the present and past tense of ... More

Switch Reference in Morphology  

Rik van Gijn

Online publication date:
Sep 2019
Subject:
Morphology
Switch reference is a grammaticalized system for marking continuity or discontinuity of reference between two clauses. It is therefore not surprising that switch reference has received a ... More

Syncretism in Morphology  

Pavel Caha

Online publication date:
Oct 2019
Subject:
Morphology
The term syncretism refers to a situation where two distinct morphosyntactic categories are expressed in the same way. For instance, in English, first and third person pronouns distinguish ... More

Syntactic Cartography  

Ur Shlonsky and Giuliano Bocci

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Syntactic cartography emerged in the 1990s as a result of the growing consensus in the field about the central role played by functional elements and by morphosyntactic features in syntax. ... More

Syntactic Categorization of Roots  

Terje Lohndal

Online publication date:
Feb 2020
A root is a fundamental minimal unit in words. Some languages do not allow their roots to appear on their own, as in the Semitic languages where roots consist of consonant clusters that ... More

Syntactic Features  

Peter Svenonius

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Subject:
Semantics, Syntax
Syntactic features are formal properties of syntactic objects which determine how they behave with respect to syntactic constraints and operations (such as selection, licensing, agreement, ... More

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