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Deponency in Morphology  

Laura Grestenberger

Online publication date:
Sep 2019
Deponency refers to mismatches between morphological form and syntactic function (or “meaning”), such that a given morphological exponent appears in a syntactic environment that is ... More

Derivational Economy in Syntax and Semantics  

Željko Bošković and Troy Messick

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Subject:
Semantics, Syntax
Economy considerations have always played an important role in the generative theory of grammar. They are particularly prominent in the most recent instantiation of this approach, the ... More

Derivational Morphology  

Rochelle Lieber

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Derivational morphology is a type of word formation that creates new lexemes, either by changing syntactic category or by adding substantial new meaning (or both) to a free or bound base. ... More

Determiners  

Phoevos Panagiotidis

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
Subject:
Semantics, Syntax
Determiners are a nominal syntactic category distinct from both adjectives and nouns; they constitute a functional (aka closed or ‘minor’) category and they are typically located high ... More

Displacement in Syntax  

Klaus Abels

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Displacement is a ubiquitous phenomenon in natural languages. Grammarians often speak of displacement in cases where the rules for the canonical word order of a language lead to the ... More

Distributed Morphology  

Jonathan David Bobaljik

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Distributed Morphology (DM) is a framework in theoretical morphology, characterized by two core tenets: (i) that the internal hierarchical structure of words is, in the first instance, ... More

Early Modern English  

Terttu Nevalainen

In the Early Modern English period (1500–1700), steps were taken toward Standard English, and this was also the time when Shakespeare wrote, but these perspectives are only part of the ... More

Exoskeletal Versus Endoskeletal Approaches in Morphology  

Víctor Acedo-Matellán

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
A fundamental difference in theoretical models of morphology and, particularly, of the syntax–morphology interface is that between endoskeletal and exoskeletal approaches. In the former, ... More

Frequency Effects in Grammar  

Holger Diessel and Martin Hilpert

Online publication date:
May 2016
Until recently, theoretical linguists have paid little attention to the frequency of linguistic elements in grammar and grammatical development. It is a standard assumption of (most) ... More

Functional Categories: Complementizers and Adpositions  

Lena Baunaz

Online publication date:
May 2019
The standard observation is that complementizers corresponding to English that involve the illocutionary force of the clause, but the situation is not that simple, as factivity and ... More

Gender  

Jenny Audring

Online publication date:
Jul 2016
Gender is a grammatical feature, in a family with person, number, and case. In the languages that have grammatical gender—according to a representative typological sample, almost half of ... More

Grammaticalization  

Walter Bisang

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Linguistic change not only affects the lexicon and the phonology of words, it also operates on the grammar of a language. In this context, grammaticalization is concerned with the ... More

Historical Developments from Middle to Early New Indo-Aryan  

Vit Bubenik

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
While in phonology Middle Indo-Aryan (MIA) dialects preserved the phonological system of Old Indo-Aryan (OIA) virtually intact, their morphosyntax underwent far-reaching changes, which ... More

Hmong-Mien Languages  

David R. Mortensen

Online publication date:
May 2017
Hmong-Mien (also known as Miao-Yao) is a bipartite family of minority languages spoken primarily in China and mainland Southeast Asia. The two branches, called Hmongic and Mienic by most ... More

Idioms and Phraseology  

M. Teresa Espinal and Jaume Mateu

Online publication date:
May 2019
Idioms, conceived as fixed multi-word expressions that conceptually encode non-compositional meaning, are linguistic units that raise a number of questions relevant in the study of ... More

Incorporation and Pseudo-Incorporation in Syntax  

Diane Massam

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Noun incorporation (NI) is a grammatical construction where a nominal, usually bearing the semantic role of an object, has been incorporated into a verb to form a complex verb or ... More

Inflectional Morphology  

Gregory Stump

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Inflection is the systematic relation between words’ morphosyntactic content and their morphological form; as such, the phenomenon of inflection raises fundamental questions about the ... More

Kiowa-Tanoan Languages  

Daniel Harbour

The Kiowa-Tanoan family is a small group of Native American languages of the Plains and pueblo Southwest. It comprises Kiowa, of the eponymous Plains tribe, and the pueblo-based Tanoan ... More

Korean Phonetics and Phonology  

Young-mee Yu Cho

Online publication date:
Oct 2016
Due to a number of unusual and interesting properties, Korean phonetics and phonology have been generating productive discussion within modern linguistic theories, starting from ... More

Korean Syntax  

James Hye Suk Yoon

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
The syntax of Korean is characterized by several signature properties. One signature property is head-finality. Word order variations and restrictions obey head-finality. Korean also ... More

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