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Language Revitalization  

Aidan Pine and Mark Turin

The world is home to an extraordinary level of linguistic diversity, with roughly 7,000 languages currently spoken and signed. Yet this diversity is highly unstable and is being rapidly ... More

Languages of the Balkans  

Victor A. Friedman

The Balkan languages were the first group of languages whose similarities were explained in modern linguistic terms as a result of language contact rather than as a result of descent from ... More

Languages of the World  

William R. Leben

About 7,000 languages are spoken around the world today. The actual number depends on where the line is drawn between language and dialect—an arbitrary decision, because languages are ... More

Learnability and Learning Algorithms in Phonology  

Anne-Michelle Tessier

Published Online:
Jul 2017
Phonological learnability deals with the formal properties of phonological languages and grammars, which are combined with algorithms that attempt to learn the language-specific aspects of ... More

Lexical Acquisition and the Structure of the Mental Lexicon  

Eve V. Clark

Published Online:
Mar 2017
The words and word-parts children acquire at different stages offer insights into how the mental lexicon might be organized. Children first identify ‘words,’ recurring sequences of sounds, ... More

Lexicalization in Morphology  

Martin Hilpert

Published Online:
Jan 2019
The term lexicalization describes the addition of new open-class elements to a repository of holistically processed linguistic units. At the basis of lexicalization are word-formation ... More

Lexical Semantic Framework for Morphology  

Marios Andreou

Published Online:
Mar 2017
The central goal of the Lexical Semantic Framework (LSF) is to characterize the meaning of simple lexemes and affixes and to show how these meanings can be integrated in the creation of ... More

Lexical Semantics  

Dirk Geeraerts

Published Online:
Jan 2017
Lexical semantics is the study of word meaning. Descriptively speaking, the main topics studied within lexical semantics involve either the internal semantic structure of words, or the ... More

Linguistic Landscape of Ethiopia  

Elizabeth Lanza and Hirut Woldemariam

Published Online:
Jun 2017
The linguistic landscape (henceforth LL) has proven to be a fruitful approach for investigating various societal dimensions of written language use in the public sphere. First introduced ... More

Linguistics in Premodern India  

Émilie Aussant

Published Online:
Jan 2018
Indian linguistic thought begins around the 8th–6th centuries bce with the composition of Padapāṭhas (word-for-word recitation of Vedic texts where phonological rules generally are not ... More

Literature and Linguistics  

Nigel Fabb

Published Online:
Feb 2019
The linguistic study of literature addresses the ways in which language is differently organized in verbal art (literature): form is added to language, altered, attenuated, and differently ... More

Locality in Syntax  

Adriana Belletti

Published Online:
Jan 2018
Phenomena involving the displacement of syntactic units are widespread in human languages. The term displacement refers here to a dependency relation whereby a given syntactic constituent ... More

Mande-Atlantic Contacts  

Konstantin Pozdniakov, Guillaume Segerer, and Valentin Vydrin

Published Online:
May 2019
The Atlantic family includes 40 to 50 languages spoken in the coastal countries of West Africa, from southern Mauritania to Liberia; the Fula language of the Fulbe people is dispersed over ... More

Mande Languages  

Valentin Vydrin

Published Online:
Jul 2018
Mande is a mid-range language family in Western Sub-Saharan Africa that includes 60 to 75 languages spoken by 30 to 40 million people. According to the glottochronological data, its ... More

Mayan Languages  

Nora C. England

Mayan languages are spoken by over 5 million people in Guatemala, Mexico, Belize, and Honduras. There are around 30 different languages today, ranging in size from fairly large (about a ... More

Meanings of Constructions  

Laura A. Michaelis

Published Online:
Mar 2017
Meanings are assembled in various ways in a construction-based grammar, and this array can be represented as a continuum of idiomaticity, a gradient of lexical fixity. Constructional ... More

Metrical Structure and Stress  

Matthew K. Gordon

Published Online:
Jul 2016
Metrical structure refers to the phonological representations capturing the prominence relationships between syllables, usually manifested phonetically as differences in levels of stress. ... More

Middle English  

Cynthia L. Allen

Middle English is the name given to the English of the period from approximately 1100 to approximately 1450. This period is marked by substantial developments in all areas of English ... More

Missionary Dictionaries  

Otto Zwartjes

Published Online:
Mar 2018
Missionary dictionaries are printed books or manuscripts compiled by missionaries in which words are listed systematically followed by words which have the same meaning in another ... More

Missionary Grammars  

Otto Zwartjes

Published Online:
Mar 2018
Missionary grammars are printed books or manuscripts compiled by missionaries in which a particular language is described. These grammars were mainly written as pedagogical tools for ... More