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Munda Languages  

Gregory D. S. Anderson

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
The Munda language family constitutes the westernmost branch of the widespread Austroasiatic language family. Munda formerly was considered sister to the rest of the phylum, then known as ... More

Muskogean Languages  

Jack B. Martin

Online publication date:
May 2017
The Muskogean languages are a family of languages indigenous to the southeastern United States. Members of the family include Chickasaw, Choctaw, Alabama, Koasati, Apalachee, ... More

Natural Language Ontology  

Friederike Moltmann

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Subject:
Semantics
Natural language ontology is a branch of both metaphysics and linguistic semantics. Its aim is to uncover the ontological categories, notions, and structures that are implicit in the use ... More

Natural Morphology  

Wolfgang U. Dressler

Online publication date:
May 2019
Subject:
Morphology
Natural Morphology (NM) is a functionalist theory that aims to account for morphological preferences on the basis of extralinguistic motivations. It is hierarchically structured in three ... More

The Nature of Productivity (Including Word Formation Versus Creative Coining)  

Andrew Spencer

Online publication date:
Nov 2019
Subject:
Morphology
The term productivity most commonly applies to word formation, but in principle it can be applied to any linguistic process. A process is said to be productive if it applies without ... More

Nikolai Trubetzkoy  

Edwin L. Battistella

Online publication date:
Jan 2017
Nikolai Trubetzkoy (1890–1938) was a Russian émigré scholar who settled in Austria in 1922, serving as Head of Slavic Linguistics at the University of Vienna and participating in the ... More

Noam Chomsky  

Howard Lasnik and Terje Lohndal

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
Noam Avram Chomsky is one of the central figures of modern linguistics. He was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on December 7, 1928. In 1945, Chomsky enrolled in the University of ... More

Nominalization: General Overview and Theoretical Issues  

Rochelle Lieber

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
Nominalization refers both to the process by which complex nouns are created and to the complex nouns that are derived by that process. Nominalizations common in the languages of the world ... More

Nominal Reference  

Donka Farkas

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
Subject:
Semantics
Nominal reference is central to both linguistic semantics and philosophy of language. On the theoretical side, both philosophers and linguists wrestle with the problem of how the link ... More

Noun-Modifying Clause Construction in Japanese  

Yoshiko Matsumoto

The noun-modifying clause construction (NMCC) in Japanese is a complex noun phrase in which a prenominal clause is dependent on the head noun. Naturally occurring instances of the ... More

Number in Language  

Paolo Acquaviva

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Number is the category through which languages express information about the individuality, numerosity, and part structure of what we speak about. As a linguistic category it has a ... More

Okinawan Language  

Shinsho Miyara

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
Within the Ryukyuan branch of the Japonic family of languages, present-day Okinawan retains numerous regional variants which have evolved for over a thousand years in the Ryukyuan ... More

Old and Middle English Phonology  

Donka Minkova

Online publication date:
May 2019
Old English (OE) is a cover term for a variety of dialects spoken in Britain ca. 5th–11th century. Most of the manuscripts on which the descriptive handbook tradition relies date from the ... More

Old and Middle Japanese  

Bjarke Frellesvig

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
Old and Middle Japanese are the pre-modern periods of the attested history of the Japanese language. Old Japanese (OJ) is largely the language of the 8th century, with a modest, but still ... More

The Onomasiological Approach  

Jesús Fernández-Domínguez

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
The onomasiological approach is a theoretical framework that emphasizes the cognitive-semantic component of language and the primacy of extra-linguistic reality in the process of naming. ... More

Origins of the Japanese Language  

Alexander Vovin

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
The Northeast Asia is one of the unique points on the globe where there are many language isolates and portmanteau families. From a conservative point of view, the Japanese language is a ... More

Overabundance in Morphology  

Anna M. Thornton

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Overabundance is the situation in which two (or more) inflectional forms are available to realize the same cell in the inflectional paradigm of a lexeme (i.e., to express the meaning ... More

Parasynthesis in Morphology  

Claudio Iacobini

Online publication date:
Jan 2020
Subject:
Morphology
The term parasynthesis is mainly used in modern theoretical linguistics in the meaning introduced by Arsène Darmesteter (1874) to refer to denominal or deadjectival prefixed verbs of the ... More

Participial Relative Clauses  

Petra Sleeman

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Subject:
Syntax
Relative clauses of which the predicate contains a present, past, or passive participle can be used in a reduced form. Although it has been shown that participial relative clauses cannot ... More

Parts of Speech, Lexical Categories, and Word Classes in Morphology  

Jaklin Kornfilt

Online publication date:
Jan 2020
Subject:
Morphology
The term “part of speech” is a traditional one that has been in use since grammars of Classical Greek (e.g., Dionysius Thrax) and Latin were compiled; for all practical purposes, it is ... More

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