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Origins of the Japanese Language  

Alexander Vovin

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
The Northeast Asia is one of the unique points on the globe where there are many language isolates and portmanteau families. From a conservative point of view, the Japanese language is a ... More

Overabundance in Morphology  

Anna M. Thornton

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Overabundance is the situation in which two (or more) inflectional forms are available to realize the same cell in the inflectional paradigm of a lexeme (i.e., to express the meaning ... More

Participial Relative Clauses  

Petra Sleeman

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Subject:
Syntax
Relative clauses of which the predicate contains a present, past, or passive participle can be used in a reduced form. Although it has been shown that participial relative clauses cannot ... More

Passives and Syntax  

Artemis Alexiadou

Online publication date:
May 2017
Subject:
Syntax
Cross-linguistic differences in passive formation and the differences between verbal and adjectival passives reveal some of the core properties of the passive. In earlier stages of the ... More

Penutian Languages  

Anthony P. Grant

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
The Penutian language family, Penutian phylum, or better still, Penutian hypothesis is one of the largest genealogical linguistic groupings to have been proposed for western North America. ... More

Personal Nouns (Agent Nouns) in the Romance Languages  

Riccardo Regis

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics. Please check back later for the full article. As ... More

Personal/Participant/Inhabitant in Morphology  

Marios Andreou

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
The category of Personal/Participant/Inhabitant derived nouns comprises a conglomeration of derived nouns that denote among others agents, instruments, patients/themes, inhabitants, and ... More

Phonetics  

D. H. Whalen

Online publication date:
Jul 2019
Phonetics is the branch of linguistics that deals with the physical realization of meaningful distinctions in spoken language. Phoneticians study the anatomy and physics of sound ... More

The Phonetics of Babbling  

Susan Rvachew and Abdulsalam Alhaidary

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Babbling is made up of meaningless speechlike syllables called canonical syllables. Canonical syllables are characterized by the coordination of consonantal and vocalic elements in ... More

Phonetics of Consonants  

Susanne Fuchs and Peter Birkholz

Online publication date:
Jul 2019
Consonants are a major class of sounds occurring in all human languages. Typologically, consonant inventories are richer than vowel inventories. Consonants have been classified according ... More

Phonetics of Singing in Western Classical Style  

Johan Sundberg

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
The function of the voice organ is basically the same in classical singing as in speech. However, loud orchestral accompaniment has necessitated the use of the voice in an economical way. ... More

Phonetics of Vowels  

Christine Ericsdotter Nordgren

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Speech sounds are commonly divided into two main categories in human languages: vowels, such as ‘e’, ‘a’, ‘o’, and consonants, such as ‘k’, ‘n’, ‘s’. This division is made on the basis of ... More

Phonological and Morphological Aspects of Reduplication  

Suzanne Urbanczyk

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Reduplication is a word-formation process in which all or part of a word is repeated to convey some form of meaning. A wide range of patterns are found in terms of both the form and ... More

Phonological Inventories  

Steven Moran

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
A phonological inventory is a repertoire of contrastive articulatory or manual gestures shared by a community of users. Whether spoken or signed, all human languages have a phonological ... More

Phonological Templates in Development  

Marilyn May Vihman

Online publication date:
Dec 2016
Child phonological templates are idiosyncratic word production patterns. They can be understood as deriving, through generalization of patterning, from the very first words of the child, ... More

Phonological Variation and Change in Italian  

Alessandro Vietti

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
The phonology of Italian is subject to considerable variability both at the segmental and at the prosodic level. Changes affect different features of the phonological system such as the ... More

Pidgin Languages  

Mikael Parkvall

Pidgin languages sometimes form in contact situations where a means of communication is urgently needed between groups lacking a common code. They are typically less elaborate than any of ... More

Pidgins and Creoles  

John McWhorter

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Creole languages have mostly resulted from interactions between Europeans and subordinated peoples amid colonization, trade, and imperialism. Given that the creation of these languages was ... More

Pitch Accent in Korean  

Chiyuki Ito and Michael J. Kenstowicz

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Typologically, pitch-accent languages stand between stress languages like Spanish and tone languages like Shona, and share properties of both. In a stress language, typically just one ... More

The Playful Lexicon in the Romance Languages: Onomatopoeia, Reduplication, Prosodic Templates, Blending  

David Pharies

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics. Please check back later for the full article. We ... More

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