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Phonological Inventories  

Steven Moran

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
A phonological inventory is a repertoire of contrastive articulatory or manual gestures shared by a community of users. Whether spoken or signed, all human languages have a phonological ... More

Phonological Templates in Development  

Marilyn May Vihman

Online publication date:
Dec 2016
Child phonological templates are idiosyncratic word production patterns. They can be understood as deriving, through generalization of patterning, from the very first words of the child, ... More

Phonological Variation and Change in Italian  

Alessandro Vietti

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
The phonology of Italian is subject to considerable variability both at the segmental and at the prosodic level. Changes affect different features of the phonological system such as the ... More

Pidgin Languages  

Mikael Parkvall

Pidgin languages sometimes form in contact situations where a means of communication is urgently needed between groups lacking a common code. They are typically less elaborate than any of ... More

Pidgins and Creoles  

John McWhorter

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Creole languages have mostly resulted from interactions between Europeans and subordinated peoples amid colonization, trade, and imperialism. Given that the creation of these languages was ... More

Pitch Accent in Korean  

Chiyuki Ito and Michael J. Kenstowicz

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Typologically, pitch-accent languages stand between stress languages like Spanish and tone languages like Shona, and share properties of both. In a stress language, typically just one ... More

The Playful Lexicon in the Romance Languages: Onomatopoeia, Reduplication, Prosodic Templates, Blending  

David Pharies

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics. Please check back later for the full article. We ... More

Polarity in the Semantics of Natural Language  

Anastasia Giannakidou

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
This paper provides an overview of polarity phenomena in human languages. There are three prominent paradigms of polarity items: negative polarity items (NPIs), positive polarity items ... More

Politeness in Pragmatics  

Dániel Z. Kádár

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Subject:
Pragmatics
Politeness comprises linguistic and non-linguistic behavior through which people indicate that they take others’ feelings of how they should be treated into account. Politeness comes into ... More

Polysemy  

Agustín Vicente and Ingrid L. Falkum

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Polysemy is characterized as the phenomenon whereby a single word form is associated with two or several related senses. It is distinguished from monosemy, where one word form is ... More

Polysynthesis: A Diachronic and Typological Perspective  

Michael Fortescue

Online publication date:
Jul 2016
Polysynthesis is informally understood as the packing of a large number of morphemes into single words, as in (1) from Bininj Gun-wok (Evans, in press).1) ... More

Pragmatics and Intonation  

Brady Clark

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Subject:
Pragmatics
Intonation impacts pragmatic meaning. A range of empirical evidence shows that the pragmatic functions of intonation are specifiable. The dimensions of meaning impacted by intonation ... More

Pragmatics and Language Evolution  

Marieke Woensdregt and Kenny Smith

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Pragmatics is the branch of linguistics that deals with language use in context. It looks at the meaning linguistic utterances can have beyond their literal meaning (implicature), and also ... More

Pragmatics of Focus  

Jon Scott Stevens

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Subject:
Pragmatics
Generally speaking, ‘focus’ refers to the portion of an utterance which is especially informative or important within the context, and which is marked as such via some linguistic means. It ... More

Prescriptive Attitudes to English Usage  

Ingrid Tieken-Boon van Ostade and Carmen Ebner

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Taking a sociolinguistic approach to prescriptivism in English usage, this article presents different methods by which highly frequent usage problems can be analyzed as to their current ... More

Psycholinguistic Approaches to Morphology  

Christina L. Gagné

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Psycholinguistics is the study of how language is acquired, represented, and used by the human mind; it draws on knowledge about both language and cognitive processes. A central topic of ... More

Quantitative Derivation in Morphology  

Gianina Iordăchioaia

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
In linguistics, the study of quantity is concerned with the behavior of expressions that refer to amounts in terms of the internal structure of objects and events, their spatial or ... More

Relative Clauses in Syntax  

Mark de Vries

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
Subject:
Syntax
A relative clause is a clausal modifier that relates to a constituent of the sentence, typically a noun phrase. This is the antecedent or “head” of the relative construction. What makes ... More

Rendaku or Sequential Voicing in Japanese Phonology  

Timothy J. Vance

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
The term rendaku, sometimes translated as sequential voicing, denotes a morphophonemic phenomenon in Japanese. In a prototypical case, an alternating morpheme appears with an initial ... More

Romance in Contact With Basque  

Gerd Jendraschek

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
The convergence between Basque and Romance is now largely unidirectional, with Basque becoming more like Romance, but shared features suggest that Basque had historically a considerable ... More

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