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Formants  

Daniel Aalto, Jarmo Malinen, and Martti Vainio

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
Formant frequencies are the positions of the local maxima of the power spectral envelope of a sound signal. They arise from acoustic resonances of the vocal tract air column, and they ... More

French-Based Creole Languages  

Anne Hertz

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Frequency Effects in Grammar  

Holger Diessel and Martin Hilpert

Online publication date:
May 2016
Until recently, theoretical linguists have paid little attention to the frequency of linguistic elements in grammar and grammatical development. It is a standard assumption of (most) ... More

Functional Categories: Complementizers and Adpositions  

Lena Baunaz

Online publication date:
May 2019
The standard observation is that complementizers corresponding to English that involve the illocutionary force of the clause, but the situation is not that simple, as factivity and ... More

Game Theory in Pragmatics: Evolution, Rationality, and Reasoning  

Michael Franke

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Game theory provides formal means of representing and explaining action choices in social decision situations where the choices of one participant depend on the choices of another. Game ... More

Gender  

Jenny Audring

Online publication date:
Jul 2016
Gender is a grammatical feature, in a family with person, number, and case. In the languages that have grammatical gender—according to a representative typological sample, almost half of ... More

Genealogical Classification in Historical Linguistics  

Søren Wichmann

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Different methods exist for classifying languages, depending on whether the task is to work out the relations among languages already known to be related—internal language ... More

Generative Grammar  

Knut Tarald Taraldsen

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
This article presents different types of generative grammar that can be used as models of natural languages focusing on a small subset of all the systems that have been devised. The ... More

Georg von der Gabelentz  

James McElvenny

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
The German sinologist and general linguist Georg von der Gabelentz (1840–1893) occupies an interesting place at the intersection of several streams of linguistic scholarship at the end of ... More

Grammaticalization  

Walter Bisang

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Linguistic change not only affects the lexicon and the phonology of words, it also operates on the grammar of a language. In this context, grammaticalization is concerned with the ... More

Greek in Contact with Romance  

Angela Ralli

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
In the course of its long history, Greek has experienced a particularly multifarious and profound contact with Romance, in a wide geographical area that spreads from western to eastern ... More

Historical Developments from Middle to Early New Indo-Aryan  

Vit Bubenik

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
While in phonology Middle Indo-Aryan (MIA) dialects preserved the phonological system of Old Indo-Aryan (OIA) virtually intact, their morphosyntax underwent far-reaching changes, which ... More

A History of Creole Studies  

Silvio Moreira de Sousa, Johannes Mücke, and Philipp Krämer

As an institutionalized subfield of academic research, Creole studies (or Creolistics) emerged in the second half of the 20th century on the basis of pioneering works in the last decades ... More

History of European Vernacular Grammar Writing  

Gerda Haßler

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
The grammatization of European vernacular languages began in the Late Middle Ages and Renaissance and continued up until the end of the 18th century. Through this process, grammars were ... More

History of the English Language  

Ans van Kemenade

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
The status of English in the early 21st century makes it hard to imagine that the language started out as an assortment of North Sea Germanic dialects spoken in parts of England only by ... More

History of the Portuguese Lexicon  

Bernhard Pöll

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
The basic vocabulary of Portuguese—the second largest Romance language in terms of speakers (about 210 million as of 2017)—comes from (vulgar) Latin, which itself incorporated a certain ... More

Hmong-Mien Languages  

David R. Mortensen

Online publication date:
May 2017
Hmong-Mien (also known as Miao-Yao) is a bipartite family of minority languages spoken primarily in China and mainland Southeast Asia. The two branches, called Hmongic and Mienic by most ... More

Hokan Languages  

Carmen Jany

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Hokan is a linguistic stock or phylum based on a series of hypotheses about deeper genetic relationships among languages that extend geographically from Northern California to Nicaragua. ... More

Humor in Language  

Salvatore Attardo

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Interest in the linguistics of humor is widespread and dates since classical times. Several theoretical models have been proposed to describe and explain the function of humor in language. ... More

Iconicity  

Irit Meir and Oksana Tkachman

Iconicity is a relationship of resemblance or similarity between the two aspects of a sign: its form and its meaning. An iconic sign is one whose form resembles its meaning in some way. ... More

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