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Languages of the World  

William R. Leben

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
About 7,000 languages are spoken around the world today. The actual number depends on where the line is drawn between language and dialect—an arbitrary decision, because languages are ... More

Learnability and Learning Algorithms in Phonology  

Anne-Michelle Tessier

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Phonological learnability deals with the formal properties of phonological languages and grammars, which are combined with algorithms that attempt to learn the language-specific aspects of ... More

Lexical Acquisition and the Structure of the Mental Lexicon  

Eve V. Clark

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
The words and word-parts children acquire at different stages offer insights into how the mental lexicon might be organized. Children first identify ‘words,’ recurring sequences of sounds, ... More

Lexicalization in Morphology  

Martin Hilpert

Online publication date:
Jan 2019
Subject:
Morphology
The term lexicalization describes the addition of new open-class elements to a repository of holistically processed linguistic units. At the basis of lexicalization are word-formation ... More

Lexical Semantic Framework for Morphology  

Marios Andreou

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
The central goal of the Lexical Semantic Framework (LSF) is to characterize the meaning of simple lexemes and affixes and to show how these meanings can be integrated in the creation of ... More

Lexical Semantics  

Dirk Geeraerts

Online publication date:
Jan 2017
Subject:
Semantics
Lexical semantics is the study of word meaning. Descriptively speaking, the main topics studied within lexical semantics involve either the internal semantic structure of words, or the ... More

Linguistic Landscape of Ethiopia  

Elizabeth Lanza and Hirut Woldemariam

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
The linguistic landscape (henceforth LL) has proven to be a fruitful approach for investigating various societal dimensions of written language use in the public sphere. First introduced ... More

Linguistics in Premodern India  

Émilie Aussant

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
Indian linguistic thought begins around the 8th–6th centuries bce with the composition of Padapāṭhas (word-for-word recitation of Vedic texts where phonological rules generally are not ... More

Literature and Linguistics  

Nigel Fabb

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
The linguistic study of literature addresses the ways in which language is differently organized in verbal art (literature): form is added to language, altered, attenuated, and differently ... More

Locality in Syntax  

Adriana Belletti

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
Phenomena involving the displacement of syntactic units are widespread in human languages. The term displacement refers here to a dependency relation whereby a given syntactic constituent ... More

Mande-Atlantic Contacts  

Konstantin Pozdniakov, Guillaume Segerer, and Valentin Vydrin

Online publication date:
May 2019
The Atlantic family includes 40 to 50 languages spoken in the coastal countries of West Africa, from southern Mauritania to Liberia; the Fula language of the Fulbe people is dispersed over ... More

Mande Languages  

Valentin Vydrin

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
Mande is a mid-range language family in Western Sub-Saharan Africa that includes 60 to 75 languages spoken by 30 to 40 million people. According to the glottochronological data, its ... More

Mayan Languages  

Nora C. England

Mayan languages are spoken by over 5 million people in Guatemala, Mexico, Belize, and Honduras. There are around 30 different languages today, ranging in size from fairly large (about a ... More

Meanings of Constructions  

Laura A. Michaelis

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Meanings are assembled in various ways in a construction-based grammar, and this array can be represented as a continuum of idiomaticity, a gradient of lexical fixity. Constructional ... More

Metrical Structure and Stress  

Matthew K. Gordon

Online publication date:
Jul 2016
Metrical structure refers to the phonological representations capturing the prominence relationships between syllables, usually manifested phonetically as differences in levels of stress. ... More

Middle English  

Cynthia L. Allen

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
Middle English is the name given to the English of the period from approximately 1100 to approximately 1450. This period is marked by substantial developments in all areas of English ... More

Missionary Dictionaries  

Otto Zwartjes

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Missionary dictionaries are printed books or manuscripts compiled by missionaries in which words are listed systematically followed by words which have the same meaning in another ... More

Missionary Grammars  

Otto Zwartjes

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Missionary grammars are printed books or manuscripts compiled by missionaries in which a particular language is described. These grammars were mainly written as pedagogical tools for ... More

Mixed Languages  

Felicity Meakins

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
Mixed languages are a rare category of contact language which has gone from being an oddity of contact linguistics to the subject of media excitement, at least for one mixed language—Light ... More

Models of Human Sentence Comprehension in Computational Psycholinguistics  

John Hale

Computational models of human sentence comprehension help researchers reason about how grammar might actually be used in the understanding process. Taking a cognitivist approach, this ... More

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