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African Englishes From a Sociolinguistic Perspective  

Rajend Mesthrie

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
Four types of English exist in Africa, identifiable in terms of history, functions, and linguistic characteristics. West African Pidgin English has a history going back to the 15th century, ... More

Altaic Languages  

George Starostin

Online publication date:
Apr 2016
“Altaic” is a common term applied by linguists to a number of language families, spread across Central Asia and the Far East and sharing a large, most likely non-coincidental, number of ... More

Analogy in Morphology  

David Fertig

Online publication date:
Apr 2020
Analogy is traditionally regarded as one of the three main factors responsible for language change, along with sound change and borrowing. Whereas sound change is understood to be ... More

Berber-Arabic Language Contact  

Maarten Kossmann

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Since the start of the Islamic conquest of the Maghreb in the 7th century ce, Berber and Arabic have been in continual contact. This has led to large-scale mutual influence. The ... More

Copulas in the Romance Languages  

Christopher Pountain

Online publication date:
Mar 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Historical Linguistics, Semantics, Syntax
Definition of the copula as a discrete grammatical category is problematic. It is the semantically unmarked copulas (simple equivalents of the English verb ‘to be’) which deserve most ... More

Dalmatian (Vegliote)  

Martin Maiden

Online publication date:
Jun 2020
Dalmatian is an extinct group of Romance varieties spoken on the eastern Adriatic seaboard, best known from its Vegliote variety, spoken on the island of Krk (also called Veglia). Vegliote ... More

Early Modern English  

Terttu Nevalainen

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
In the Early Modern English period (1500–1700), steps were taken toward Standard English, and this was also the time when Shakespeare wrote, but these perspectives are only part of the ... More

Etymology in Romance  

Éva Buchi and Steven N. Dworkin

Online publication date:
Jul 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Historical Linguistics
Etymology is the only linguistic subdiscipline that is uniquely historical in its study of the relevant linguistic data and one of the oldest fields in Romance linguistics. The ... More

External Influences in the History of English  

Markku Filppula and Juhani Klemola

Online publication date:
Aug 2020
Few European languages have in the course of their histories undergone as radical changes as English did in the medieval period. The earliest documented variety of the language, Old English ... More

Ferdinand de Saussure  

John E. Joseph

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Ferdinand de Saussure (1857–1913), the founding figure of modern linguistics, made his mark on the field with a book he published a month after his 21st birthday, in which he proposed a ... More

Focus-Predicate Concord (kakari musubi) Constructions in Japanese and Okinawan  

Rumiko Shinzato

Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Historical Linguistics, Pragmatics, Syntax
This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics. Please check back later for the full article. In a ... More

Folk Etymology and Contamination in the Romance Languages  

Martin Maiden

Online publication date:
Jun 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Historical Linguistics, Morphology
‘Folk etymology’ and ‘contamination’ each involve associative formal influences between words which have no ‘etymological’ (i.e., historical), connexion. From a morphological perspective, ... More

Genealogical Classification in Historical Linguistics  

Søren Wichmann

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Historical Linguistics
Different methods exist for classifying languages, depending on whether the task is to work out the relations among languages already known to be related—internal language classification—or ... More

Georg von der Gabelentz  

James McElvenny

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Historical Linguistics, History of Linguistics
The German sinologist and general linguist Georg von der Gabelentz (1840–1893) occupies an interesting place at the intersection of several streams of linguistic scholarship at the end of ... More

Grammaticalization in Morphology  

Muriel Norde

Online publication date:
Jul 2020
Grammaticalization is traditionally defined as the gradual process whereby a lexical item becomes a grammatical item (primary grammaticalization), which may be followed by further formal ... More

Historical Developments from Middle to Early New Indo-Aryan  

Vit Bubenik

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
While in phonology Middle Indo-Aryan (MIA) dialects preserved the phonological system of Old Indo-Aryan (OIA) virtually intact, their morphosyntax underwent far-reaching changes, which ... More

History of the Portuguese Lexicon  

Bernhard Pöll

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
The basic vocabulary of Portuguese—the second largest Romance language in terms of speakers (about 210 million as of 2017)—comes from (vulgar) Latin, which itself incorporated a certain ... More

History of the Sardinian Lexicon  

Ignazio Putzu

Online publication date:
Oct 2019
Ever since the fundamental studies carried out by the great German Romanist Max Leopold Wagner (b. 1880–d. 1962), the acknowledged founder of scientific research on Sardinian, the lexicon ... More

The Kra-Dai Languages  

Yongxian Luo

Online publication date:
Jan 2019
Kra-Dai, also known as Tai–Kadai, Daic, and Kadai, is a family of diverse languages found in southern China, northeast India, and Southeast Asia. The number of these languages is estimated ... More

Language Contact and the Lexicon of Romance Languages  

André Thibault and Nicholas LoVecchio

Online publication date:
Aug 2020
The Romance languages have been involved in many situations of language contact. While language contact is evident at all levels, the most visible effects on the system of the recipient ... More

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