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African Englishes From a Sociolinguistic Perspective  

Rajend Mesthrie

Four types of English exist in Africa, identifiable in terms of history, functions, and linguistic characteristics. West African Pidgin English has a history going back to the 15th century, ... More

Altaic Languages  

George Starostin

Online publication date:
Apr 2016
“Altaic” is a common term applied by linguists to a number of language families, spread across Central Asia and the Far East and sharing a large, most likely non-coincidental, number of ... More

Analogy in Morphology  

David Fertig

Online publication date:
Apr 2020
Analogy is traditionally regarded as one of the three main factors responsible for language change, along with sound change and borrowing. Whereas sound change is understood to be ... More

Berber-Arabic Language Contact  

Maarten Kossmann

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Since the start of the Islamic conquest of the Maghreb in the 7th century ce, Berber and Arabic have been in continual contact. This has led to large-scale mutual influence. The ... More

Copulas in the Romance Languages  

Christopher Pountain

Online publication date:
Mar 2020
Definition of the copula as a discrete grammatical category is problematic. It is the semantically unmarked copulas (simple equivalents of the English verb ‘to be’) which deserve most ... More

Early Modern English  

Terttu Nevalainen

In the Early Modern English period (1500–1700), steps were taken toward Standard English, and this was also the time when Shakespeare wrote, but these perspectives are only part of the ... More

Etymology in Romance  

Éva Buchi and Steven N. Dworkin

Online publication date:
Jul 2019
Etymology is the only linguistic subdiscipline that is uniquely historical in its study of the relevant linguistic data and one of the oldest fields in Romance linguistics. The ... More

Ferdinand de Saussure  

John E. Joseph

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Ferdinand de Saussure (1857–1913), the founding figure of modern linguistics, made his mark on the field with a book he published a month after his 21st birthday, in which he proposed a ... More

Focus-Predicate Concord (kakari musubi) Constructions in Japanese and Okinawan  

Rumiko Shinzato

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics. Please check back later for the full article. In a ... More

Genealogical Classification in Historical Linguistics  

Søren Wichmann

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Different methods exist for classifying languages, depending on whether the task is to work out the relations among languages already known to be related—internal language classification—or ... More

Georg von der Gabelentz  

James McElvenny

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
The German sinologist and general linguist Georg von der Gabelentz (1840–1893) occupies an interesting place at the intersection of several streams of linguistic scholarship at the end of ... More

Historical Developments from Middle to Early New Indo-Aryan  

Vit Bubenik

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
While in phonology Middle Indo-Aryan (MIA) dialects preserved the phonological system of Old Indo-Aryan (OIA) virtually intact, their morphosyntax underwent far-reaching changes, which ... More

History of the Portuguese Lexicon  

Bernhard Pöll

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
The basic vocabulary of Portuguese—the second largest Romance language in terms of speakers (about 210 million as of 2017)—comes from (vulgar) Latin, which itself incorporated a certain ... More

History of the Sardinian Lexicon  

Ignazio Putzu

Ever since the fundamental studies carried out by the great German Romanist Max Leopold Wagner (b. 1880–d. 1962), the acknowledged founder of scientific research on Sardinian, the lexicon ... More

The Kra-Dai Languages  

Yongxian Luo

Online publication date:
Jan 2019
Kra-Dai, also known as Tai–Kadai, Daic, and Kadai, is a family of diverse languages found in southern China, northeast India, and Southeast Asia. The number of these languages is estimated ... More

The Language of Chemistry in the Romance Languages  

Cecilio Garriga Escribano

Online publication date:
Dec 2019
The language of chemistry has seldom been the object of study by linguists, who tend to prioritize literary works. Nevertheless, in recent years its study has developed at a different pace ... More

The Language of the Economy and Business in the Romance Languages  

Franz Rainer

The expression language of the economy and business refers to an extremely heterogeneous linguistic reality. For some, it denotes all text and talk produced by economic agents in the ... More

Language Revitalization  

Aidan Pine and Mark Turin

The world is home to an extraordinary level of linguistic diversity, with roughly 7,000 languages currently spoken and signed. Yet this diversity is highly unstable and is being rapidly ... More

Languages of the Balkans  

Victor A. Friedman

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
The Balkan languages were the first group of languages whose similarities were explained in modern linguistic terms as a result of language contact rather than as a result of descent from a ... More

Linking Elements in Morphology  

Renata Szczepaniak

Linking elements occur in compound nouns and derivatives in the Indo-European languages as well as in many other languages of the world. They can be described as sound material or graphemes ... More

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