Sentence-Final Particles in Chinese
Sentence-Final Particles in Chinese
- Victor Junnan PanVictor Junnan PanChinese University of Hong Kong
Chinese has a rich system of Sentence-Final Particles (SFPs). Traditional grammar and descriptive linguistic studies attempt to capture the precise semantic interpretation and the discourse function of each particle. Much work related to this aspect tries to find out what the core semantic interpretation of a given SFP is, how the diverse interpretations of a given SFP are developed from its core interpretation, and in what context the use of a given SFP is licit. Linguists from different disciplines have made important observations and offered various explanations. On the other hand, diachronic studies trace the origin and the evolution of each SFP, which helps understand the core semantics of SFPs in modern Chinese. Studies on different Chinese dialects also help the understanding of the meaning and the function of SFPs from a comparative perspective. Under the generative framework, SFPs are analyzed as complementizers, which are located in the peripheral domain. Both traditional grammarians and generative syntacticians are interested in patterns like the rigid order that necessarily shows whenever SFPs co-occur. They attempt to establish the hierarchical order of SFPs and identify the general principle that regulates such an order. Recent studies show that such an order is regulated by a discourse constraint related to subjectivity, according to which the higher a functional projection is located, the more directly it is for such a projection to be linked to the speaker’s attitude, the more subjective the interpretation of such a projection becomes, and the less likely it is for such a projection to be embedded. This constraint offers an explanation to the question of why only some SFPs can appear in embedded clauses whereas the others demonstrate root properties. Syntacticians are also interested in the question of how to derive the final order of SFPs. Two analyses are available: disjunction analysis and complement-to-specifier raising analysis. A more recent finding is that under the minimalist framework, each SFP heads a phase and bears an EPP feature. Complement-to-specifier raising is required as a last resort to satisfy the Extended Projection Principle (EPP). The complement of an SFP is moved to the phase edge to postpone the transfer of the phrases that are embedded within the complement, which allows these phrases to be extracted later.
Much descriptive work has been done since early grammar books on the rich system of Sentence-Final Particles (SFPs) in Chinese (cf. Chao, 1968; Li & Thompson, 1981; Zhu, 1982; among others). Over the last 50 years, scholars have attempted to describe the precise interpretation and the discourse function for each SFP, as well as the contexts in which the use of each SFP is licit. Diachronic studies help trace the origin and evolution of SFPs. Studies on different Chinese dialects also help understand the meaning and the function of SFPs in Mandarin from a comparative perspective. Although much progress has been made, there are still many SFPs whose core semantics and discourse functions are not explicit. Thus, future work from the descriptive perspectives is still needed. On the syntactic side, scholars are interested in questions like how to analyze SFPs, which are treated as functional heads in the generative tradition. Concretely, they are analyzed as complementizers, which head phrases equivalent to CP (Complementizer Phrase). On the other hand, Zhu (1982) observes that several SFPs could co-occur but require a fixed rigid order. Inspired by the split-CP hypothesis (cf. Rizzi, 1997), syntacticians attempt to establish a map as detailed as possible to determine the hierarchical order of SFPs and also try to find out the general principle that regulates such an order (see Li, 2006; Pan, 2015, 2019a; Pan & Paul, 2016; Paul, 2014, 2015; Paul & Pan, 2017; Tang, 2015, 2019, 2020; among others).
This article reviews some of these aspects of the research on SFPs in Mandarin Chinese. Section 2 addresses questions related to the (non-)optionality of SFPs; section 3 discusses the diachronic studies of some SFPs; section 4 presents the hierarchical order of SFPs; section 5 discusses root phenomena of some SFPs; section 6 addresses the head-finality of SFPs; section 7 presents the latest analysis of SFPs under the Minimalist Program; and section 8 concludes the article.
Although the presence or the absence of an SFP does not always affect the grammaticality of a given sentence, the presence of an SFP is not optional. This is because each particle conveys a specific meaning or has a specific discourse function; in other words, a specific semantic interpretation or a specific discourse function can only be obtained when the correct particle is used. In this sense, the presence of a particle is obligatory for the specific meaning associated with this SFP to be expressed. For instance, without any SFP, (1a) only states a fact. The particle ma (吗) transforms (1a) into a yes-no question, as shown in (1b). The confirmation question particle baconf (吧) in (1c) gives rise to a tag-question reading. The SFP neatt (呢) in (1d) serves to draw the attention of the co-speaker to the fact stated in the sentence, which has a function similar to hey, look, listen in English (see Chu, 2002; Jiang, 1986; Jin, 1996; Li, 2006; Qi, 2002a, 2002b, 2002c; Ren, 2017; and Wu, 2005; among others, for more detailed discussions on ne). The SFP baatt (吧) in (1e) expresses the speaker’s uncertainty about the fact stated in the sentence, which is translated as probably in English. The interjective particles such as a (啊) and la (啦) in (1f) express the mood of the speaker, which can be surprising, exciting, and so on (also see Chu, 2002). SFPs such as maatt (嘛) in (1g) and bei (呗) in (1h) both emphasize the obviousness of the fact that the sentence states, but with different implications. See Cui (2019, 2020) for detailed discussions on the discourse function of maatt (嘛).
The fact that a rising intonation applied to a declarative sentence sometimes gives rise to a yes-no question reading leads some scholars to suggest that the presence of the yes-no question particle ma is optional in a given sentence. However, a yes-no question with ma and a yes-no question with a rising intonation are not interchangeable (see Gunlogson, 2001, for detailed discussions on English yes-no questions; see Pan & Paul, 2016, for the discussion on Chinese ma). For instance, the indefinite reading of a wh-phrase in Chinese can be licensed in a yes-no question with ma only, as in (2a). (2b) shows that rising intonation cannot license the indefinite reading of the wh-phrase shénme ‘what’. Importantly, (2b) can only be interpreted as a root wh-question with the interrogative reading of shénme ‘what’.
3. Diachronic Studies
Although the semantic interpretation is clear for particles such as ma, such is not the case for all the SFPs. Linguists have attempted to give detailed descriptions of the semantics and the discourse function of each SFP. In this respect, diachronic research helps us trace the origin and the evolution of SFPs, to better understand their discourse functions in modern Chinese. In this section, we review the diachronic studies of the two most important SFPs: ma and ne.
3.1 Ma (吗)
One of the most studied Chinese SFPs is the yes-no particle ma, which turns a declarative sentence into a yes-no question. It is generally agreed that ma comes from negative words such as wu. A general grammaticalization path for the SFP ma is as follows.
Finally, the negative wu (无) or mo (磨/摩) has been written as ma (吗) since the Qing dynasty, as in (7).
In modern Chinese, it is sometimes written as me (麽/么), as shown in (8).
Similar cases are found with modern Chinese. For example, in (9), bù (不) is a common negative adverb located in a preverbal and postsubject position.
Bù (不) can also be used as an SFP to transform a declarative sentence into a yes-no question, as in (10).
Such phenomena are by no means isolated in modern Chinese. In fact, in a very early period, the negative word fǒu (written as 不) has already been used as an SFP to indicate a yes-no question, as in (11).
It is convincing to many that the yes-no question particle ma and its variant me are related to the negative words in ancient Chinese. The reader can also refer to Ota (2003), Wang (1980), Yang (2003), and Zhong (1997) for more detailed discussions.
3.2 Ne (呢)
Generally, three kinds of ne have been identified in modern Chinese: the first indicates the progressive aspect, glossed as “neprog” (cf. (12)), the second can be used in interrogative sentences, glossed as “neint” (cf. (13)), and the third is used in exclamative sentences to express the speaker’s subjective opinion and attitude, glossed as “neatt” (cf. (14)).3
Historically, the grammaticalization path for the interrogative neint is clear:
Example (17) is from the Song dynasty and na (那) is used.
The grammaticalization path for the exclamative neatt is as follows:
Importantly, since the Yuan dynasty, li (哩) has been used both as an interrogative particle and as an interjective particle. Here are some examples.
Ne (呢) has appeared since the Qing dynasty. See Cao (1986), L. Jiang (1986), S. Jiang (2005), Ota (2003), Qi (2002a, 2002b, 2002c), Sun (1992), and Wang (1980) for detailed discussions and controversial issues concerning the origin and the evolution of the two ne particles.
4. Hierarchical Order and Co-occurrence
SFPs in Chinese can co-occur. Zhu (1982) identifies three classes of SFPs occurring with a fixed order; more recent work on the occurrence of SFPs with evidence from Chinese dialects can be found in Wang and Bi (2018). Under the generative framework, Lee (1986) analyzes the yes-no question particle ma as a complementizer (i.e., C head), which takes a tense phrase (TP) as its complement. Based on the split-CP hypothesis (cf. Rizzi, 1997), Paul (2014, 2015) extends this analysis to all the SFPs in Chinese and maps the SFPs from the three classes identified by Zhu (1982) onto three functional projections: low C < medium C (Force) < high C (Attitude). Pan (2015, 2019a, 2019b) proposes a more fine-grained architecture of the entire peripheral domain in Chinese, containing not only SFPs but also other peripheral functional projections.
Table 1. Distribution of SFPs in Chinese from Pan (2019a)
Sentential exclusive focus
Standard yes-no question
Confirmation yes-no question
AttitudeP (speaker’s attitude)
subjective opinion, etc.
Importantly, SFPs from different projections can co-occur but only with a rigid order, as indicated in (24). In (25), neprog is a sentential progressive aspect particle located at S.AspP and ma is a yes-no question particle located at iForceP. The fact that the entire sentence is interpreted as a root yes-no question suggests that ma takes a wide scope, which is coherent with the fact that ma is located in the highest position in this sentence.
In (26), the weak imperative particle baimp is located at iForceP and the interjective particle a is located at AttP. AttP-a takes scope over iForceP-baimp.
In (27), both neatt and maatt are interjective particles conveying the speaker’s subjective opinion and attitude; they occupy two different layers of AttP. The particle neatt is used to draw the attention of the co-speaker. The particle maatt is syntactically higher than neatt and has a wide scope and maatt gives rise to the implication “Please be patient!,” as indicated in the translation of the sentence. The reader can refer to Cui (2019, 2020) for the discussion on the discourse function of maatt in modern Chinese.
Similarly, in (28), the particle baatt is interpreted as “probably” and it takes scope over the entire sentence.
(29) demonstrates a case where three SFPs co-occur in the same sentence. The sentential aspect SFP le takes a narrow scope, the exclusive focus SFP éryǐ which is interpreted as “it is just the case that. . .” takes intermediate scope and the attitude SFP baatt takes the widest scope.
Table 1 identifies two ne (neprog, neatt) and three ba (baimp, baconf, baatt), which are located in different layers. A sentence with a co-occurrence of [ne ba] is several ways ambiguous, as shown in (30). The possible combinations are indicated in table 2.
Table 2. Combination of ne and ba
When ba is analyzed as the confirmation question particle baconf located at iForceP, ne can only be analyzed as the sentential progressive particle neprog located at S.AspP, as shown in (30a). In this case, the predicate make joke is interpreted with a progressive aspect and baconf is interpreted as a tag question. When ba is analyzed as the attitude particle baatt conveying an uncertainty, which is located at the higher layer of AttP (i.e., AttP2), ne can be analyzed as either a progressive particle neprog at S.AspP or an attitude particle neatt, which is located at the lower layer of AttP (i.e., AttP1), as shown in (30b) and (30c), respectively. In both (30b) and (30c), the uncertainty particle baatt is translated as “probably,” which takes scope over the entire sentence. In (30b), neprog denotes a progressive aspectual reading and in (30c), neatt is translated as “look” which is used to draw the attention of the co-speaker.
The hierarchy proposed by Pan (2015, 2019a) has also been observed in archaic Chinese. The SFP yě (也) is analyzed as an assertive particle in copular sentences, which can head a FiniteP à la Rizzi (1997), as shown in (31a). The particle hū (乎) is an interrogative particle and it transforms a declarative sentence into a yes-no question, as shown in (31b). (31b) and (31c) have the same word order; however, (31c) has a rhetorical question reading. This shows that hū behaves similarly to the yes-no question particle ma in modern Chinese. According to the system of Pan (2015, 2019a), a negative operator which heads a Special Question Phrase (SQP) takes scope over the entire question and gives rise to a strong assertion reading. The particle zāi (哉) is an interjective particle which expresses the speaker’s mood and attitude, which heads an AttP, as shown in (31d).
(32) is another example with the same order: TP < FiniteP (yě) < iForceP (hū) < SQP (¬) < AttP (zāi).
A partial hierarchy can be proposed for Old Chinese at this stage. More fine-grained analyses of the entire array of SFPs in old Chinese are still called for.
A very important question is what factors determine the rigid syntactic hierarchical order of functional projections in the left-periphery in Chinese. Pan (2015, 2019a) proposes that this order is correlated with a discourse constraint, the “Subjectivity Scale Constraint.”
This constraint provides us with a possible way to study the correlation between syntax and discourse. Higher particles are directly related to the subjective opinion and attitude of the speaker, and they can only be used in direct speech, which is why they show root properties. By contrast, lower particles are related to the sentence subject and they can be used in embedded clauses and thus can be used in indirect speech. For instance, (35) shows that when the final particle le takes scope over the negative predicate bù xué gāngqín ‘does not learn playing piano’, an implication such that ‘Zhangsan did learn playing piano before’ is available. The English translation of the pattern “neg < le” is “no longer/no more.”
Let us examine (36). The final particle le can either be parsed with the embedded predicate, as in (36a), or with the matrix predicate, as in (36b). In the former case, the no-longer reading is only available with the embedded predicate learns playing piano and in the latter case, such a reading is only available with the matrix predicate believe.
Illocutionary force particles, such as the yes-no question particle ma and the imperative particle baimp and the confirmation question particle baconf, are generally excluded from embedded clauses. According to (34), these particles are located in the relatively high position in the hierarchy of the left-periphery of Chinese (also cf. (24)). Here is an example with ma.
Attitude particles, such as neatt, which draws the attention of the co-speaker, are also excluded from embedded clauses. According to (34), these particles are located in the highest position in the hierarchy of the left-periphery of Chinese (also cf. (24)). They are directly linked to the speaker’s subjective attitude and opinion, which can only be conveyed in direct speech through a root clause.
Recall that two kinds of láizhe have been identified: the lower one located at S.AspP, which is related to sentential aspect, and the higher one located at AttP, which is related to the speaker’s opinion and attitude. (39) shows that the lower aspectual láizheAsp can be embedded, and (40) shows that the higher attitude láizheatt cannot be embedded. This contrast is captured by (34) in that the highest attitude-related particles express the speaker’s subjective opinion and attitude, which can only be expressed through root clause. By contrast, lower particles are closely related to the TP and are not linked to the speaker’s attitude, which is why they can appear in embedded clauses.
Under the view of the existence of a head parameter, initial heads and final heads coexist. An initial head takes its complement on the right side, whereas a final head takes its complement on the left side. Languages like Japanese are consistent head-final languages. Chinese has both a head-initial order and a head-final order: VP and TP have initial heads, whereas NP and CP headed by the complementizer de have a final order. In (41), the matrix T takes the VP as its complement on the right side; V-know takes the complex NP as its complement on the right side. By contrast, the N head shìr ‘thing’ takes its complement clause CP headed by de on the left side and the complementizer de takes its complement TP also on the left side.
Under the split-CP hypothesis, some peripheral projections, such as TopicP, have an initial order, whereas the others, such as those headed by SFPs, have a final order. Adopting the head parameter, the final order is base-generated. Another possible view is that the final order is derived. This section discusses two existing approaches to derive the final order of SFPs.
6.1 Disjunction-Based Analyses
Diachronically, the yes-no question particle ma comes from the negative word wu in old Chinese. This leads some scholars to analyze the yes-no question particle as a disjunctive operator, which is the equivalent of or not in English (see Bailey, 2012; Tang, 2015; among others). The disjunctive head (i.e., or-not) takes two identical TPs in the specifier position and in the complement position, respectively. Then, the lower TP (in the complement position) is deleted, which gives rise to the apparent final position of the SFP.
It is somehow reasonable to treat the yes-no question particle ma as a disjunctive head based on the semantic consideration. However, it is rather difficult to uniformly treat all the SFPs, which bear different discourse functions, as disjunctive heads. For instance, an interjective particle, such as a, bei, or la, cannot be analyzed as a disjunctive head. Pan and Paul (2016) also point out that the real disjunctive word háishì in Chinese, which can only be used in disjunctive questions, does not exhibit syntactic properties of the yes-no question particle ma. Namely, háishì cannot stand in the sentence-final position. In (43), the second conjunct TP in a question with háishì ‘or’ cannot be deleted.
6.2 Comp-to-Spec Raising Analyses
Another possibility to derive an apparent final order of SFPs is to raise the complement TP to the specifier of the C that hosts an SFP (cf. Hsieh & Sybesma, 2011; Julien, 2002; Pan, forthcoming; Simpson & Wu, 2002; Sybesma, 1999; Takita, 2009; Tang, 1998; among others).
The above scholars generally agree with the idea of complement-to-specifier raising, but their analyses differ in the motivation for such a raising. For instance, analysis by Tang (1998) is based on the Linear Correspondence Axiom (LCA) (cf. Kayne, 1994). (45) is a simplified version of LCA.
After an SFP merges with its complement TP, the TP undergoes movement to a position asymmetrically c-commanding the SFP. As a result, the TP is pronounced preceding the SFP, which gives rise to the final order of SFP.
First, the TP she only resigned is moved from the complement of the S.Asp head le to the Spec of S.AspP. Since TP asymmetrically c-commands le, TP is pronounced preceding le, which gives rise to the order: TP < le. Second, the S.AspP is moved from the complement of the Only head éryǐ to the Spec of OnlyP to derive the order TP < le < éryǐ. Third, the OnlyP is moved from the complement of the Att head baatt to the Spec of AttP to derive the order TP < le < éryǐ < baatt.
Pan (2019a) discusses the advantages of the comp-to-spec raising analysis over disjunction analysis. Here is one advantage. Huang (1982) shows that the yes-no question particle ma triggers the existential closure at I’/T’ level in Chinese. In (48), the wh-object gets an existential reading in a yes-no question.
This phenomenon cannot be captured under the disjunction analysis of ma. The derivation goes as follows.
Step 1: The disjunctive head ma takes the TP1 as its complement. The particle ma triggers the ∃ quantifier at the level of T’ and ∃ c-commands the object wh-word shenme ‘what’ so that the latter obtains an ∃-reading something/anything.
Step 2: The identical TP2 is merged at the Spec of DisjP. Since ma does not c-command the TP2 located at the Spec of DisjP, ma cannot trigger the ∃ quantifier in TP2. Therefore, the object shenme ‘what’ in TP2 cannot get an ∃-reading.
Step 3: The lower TP1 in the complement position of DisjP is deleted.
At the end of the derivation, shenme ‘what’ in the TP2, which is located at the Spec of DisjP, fails to get an ∃-reading, contrary to the fact. This example constitutes an argument against the disjunction analysis of SFP. By contrast, the comp-to-spec raising analysis precisely predicts the indefinite reading of the wh-object. The derivation goes as follows.
Step 1: The C head ma takes the TP as its complement. The particle ma triggers the ∃ quantifier at the level of T’ and ∃ c-commands the object wh-word shenme ‘what’ so that the latter obtains an ∃-reading “something/anything”.
Step 2: The complement TP raises to the Spec of CP.
Since the ∃ quantifier has already been generated inside the TP before its raising, the ∃-reading of shenme ‘what’ is therefore guaranteed.5
7. A Minimalist Derivation
Pan (forthcoming) proposes an analysis which also adopts the idea of comp-to-spec raising of SFP, but the motivation of such raising and the technical details differ from the previous analyses. Under the minimalist framework, each SFP projects a phase and bears an EPP feature, which must be satisfied. The EPP of a phasal head C can be satisfied by externally merging an XP or a null operator in Spec CP, or, by internally merging an XP in the Spec under an Agree relation between the Probe-C and the Goal-XP. If there is no candidate to satisfy the EPP feature, the entire complement of the phase head C must raise to the Spec CP as a last resort to fulfill the requirement of the EPP.
The phasehood tests applied to SFPs by Pan are based on Chomsky (2000, 2001) and Citko (2014). Each phrase projected by an SFP is a derivational and transferable unit for the Conceptual-Intentional (C-I) interface and for the Articulatory-Perceptual (A-P) interface, which satisfies the basic criteria for phases. As any phase head, an SFP triggers Spell-Out and Transfer. The complement of an SFP is also a transferrable unit, which is known as an important property of a phasal domain. Both a phrase headed by an SFP and the complement of an SFP are phonological units, just like a phase and its phasal domain. Most importantly, an element moving out of a phase headed by an SFP can be interpreted at its edge. The complement of an SFP is moved to the edge in order to postpone the transfer of the phrases that are embedded within the complement, which allows these phrases to be extracted later. An important argument in support of this analysis is that when the concerned phase edge is occupied and unavailable for the moved complement, the phrases embedded within the complement will not be able to be extracted in a later stage after the complement is transferred to the interfaces.
In this version of PIC, the domain of the lower phase becomes inaccessible to further operations only after the next (higher) phasal head is merged. The major steps of the derivation of (55) are presented as follows.
Step 1: Since there is no candidate, which can be externally or internally merged with the S.Asp-le head to satisfy its EPP feature, the complement TP raises to the Spec of S.Asp-le to satisfy the EPP as a last resort.6
Step 2: The S.AspP raises to the Spec of iForce-ma to satisfy the EPP feature. Since the iForce is a phase head, the domain of the lower phase S.AspP, which is the lower copy of the TP, is transferred to the interfaces. Note that the higher copy of the TP is in fact at the edge of the phase iForceP, which is an escape hatch, therefore, it has not been transferred.
Step 3: Since the entire TP is at an escape hatch, its internal component is still accessible to further operations. This is why the topic phrase that painting can be extracted in the next phase cycle TopP.
In (61), TopP, NegQP and S.AspP are phases and their edges are escape hatches for Ā-movement. The idea is that the specifier of NegQP is occupied by the negative wh-word shenme ‘what’, and as a result, it is unavailable for any Ā-movement. Therefore, the topic phrase that painting cannot be extracted from the TP according to PIC. We continue the derivation from the step 1 of (57).
Step 2: The NegQ head is merged with the S.AspP and the negative wh-phrase shenme ‘what’ is merged in the specifier of the NegQP to satisfy the EPP feature. Once the EPP on the NegQ head is satisfied, its complement (i.e., S.AspP) no longer needs to raise to the Spec of NegQP. Since the NegQ head is a phase head, the domain of the lower phase S.AspP, which is the lower copy of the TP, is transferred to the interfaces. Note that at this moment, the higher copy of the TP is still available for further operations since it is located at the edge of the S.AspP, which is an escape hatch.
Step 3: When the next phasal head, Top, is merged with the NegQP, the domain of the NegQP (i.e., S.AspP) is transferred to the interfaces. The transferred S.AspP is no longer available for further operations. Note that at this stage, the higher copy of the TP has also been transferred and as a result, the topic phrase that painting can no longer be extracted, which is why the derivation crashes.
This article reviews the main findings concerning SFPs in Chinese. Diachronic studies concentrate on the origin and the evolution of each SFP, which helps us understand the core semantics and the discourse functions of SFPs in modern Mandarin. Traditional grammar tries to capture the core semantics as well as the diverse interpretations developed from the core semantics of each SFP. Syntactically, SFPs head different functional projections split from CP. Both traditional grammarians and generative grammarians are interested in the co-occurrence of different SFPs that display a rigid order. This article has reviewed the proposal that such an order is regulated by a discourse constraint related to subjectivity, according to which higher functional projections are directly linked to the speaker’s subjective attitude and are generally excluded from embedded clauses, whereas lower projections are more related to the sentence subject and are less subjective and can appear in embedded clauses. This constraint offers an explanation to the question of why only some SFPs can appear in embedded clauses whereas the others show root properties. Much work has also been done to account for the final order of SFPs. We compared two different derivations: the disjunction analysis and the complement-to-specifier raising analysis. Under the Minimalist Program, each SFP heads a phase and bears an EPP feature. Complement-to-specifier raising is required as a last resort to satisfy the EPP. The complement of an SFP is moved to the phase edge to postpone the transfer of the phrases that are embedded within the complement, which allows these phrases to be extracted later. Importantly, when the concerned phase edge is not available for the moved complement, phrases embedded within the complement can no longer be extracted in a later stage after the complement is transferred given the Phase Impenetrability Condition.
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1. The major dynasties are listed here: Spring and Autumn (770 bc–476 bc); Qin dynasty (221 bc–207 bc); Han dynasty (202 bc– 220 ad); Tang dynasty (618 ad–907 ad); Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (907 ad– 979 ad); Song dynasty (960 ad–1279 ad); Jin (1115 ad–1234 ad); Yuan dynasty (1271 ad–1368 ad); Ming dynasty (1368 ad– 1644 ad); Qing dynasty (1636 ad–1912 ad).
3. It is still controversial whether all these three ne can really be distinguished from each other. Especially, it has been recognized that neint is only compatible with an interrogative sentence, but it does not have any inherent interrogative force, which is different from a real interrogative particle such as the yes-no question particle ma (see Li, 2006; Pan & Paul, 2016).
5. In fact, the existential operator cannot be generated adjoining to the whole Disjunction Phrase in Chinese. This is because the existential closure cannot apply in a position higher than T’ level in Chinese since a wh-subject can never have an indefinite reading. This has been extensively argued in Pan (2019b). For instance, in (i), the wh-subject shéi ‘who’ cannot get an indefinite reading ‘anyone’. This is because ∃ is triggered at T’ level by the SFP ma; however, the wh-subject shéi ‘who’ is outside the scope of ∃ and therefore, ∃ cannot bind shéi ‘who’ as a variable.
6. An SFP does not function as a probe and it does not agree with any particular goal.
- Semantic Compositionality
- Chinese Semantics
- Language and Linguistics in Pre-Modern China and East Asia
- Displacement in Syntax
- Derivational Economy in Syntax and Semantics
- Meanings of Constructions
- Cyclicity in Syntax
- Locality in Syntax
- Syntactic Features
- Functional Categories: Complementizers and Adpositions
- Syntactic Cartography
- Morpheme Ordering