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Reed, Ishmael  

Lynn Orilla Scott

Published Online:
Jul 2017
Among contemporary African-American writers, Ishmael Reed is one of the most innovative, prolific, and controversial. To date he has published nine novels, five collections of poems, four ... More

Representations of Women in Southern Literature  

Pearl Amelia McHaney

Published Online:
Mar 2019
The myths of southern women include mammies, belles, ladies, and mulattos. In southern fiction, drama, poetry, and memoir, these categories of women are both perpetuated and disrupted. ... More

Revisiting Asian American Poetics  

Juliana Chang

Published Online:
Jun 2019
The most discussed and cited works of Asian American writing in literary studies include mainly novels, memoirs, short fiction, essays, and plays. To use Sau-ling Wong’s terms Necessity ... More

Rich, Adrienne  

Claire Keyes

Published Online:
Jul 2017
Adrienne Rich has earned a place in American literature as the leading feminist poet of the twentieth century. Most critics agree that she has accomplished what no woman writer has done ... More

Right-Wing Literature in the United States since the 1960s  

Carol Mason

Examining fiction and nonfiction written explicitly by and for members of right-wing movements provides a deeper understanding of points of affinity as well as contention in the midst of ... More

Rita Indiana Hernández  

Selma Feliciano-Arroyo

Rita Indiana Hernández (b. June 11, 1977, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic) is a Dominican writer, musician, and performer. In addition to her popularity as a singer-songwriter, she is ... More

Robinson, Edwin Arlington  

Scott Donaldson

Published Online:
Jul 2017
Edwin Arlington Robinson (1869–1935) was the first great modernist American poet. He grew up during a period of prettified poetry and rejected its archaisms and artificialities out of ... More

Roethke, Theodore  

Gerry Cambridge

Published Online:
Jul 2017
Not long before his premature deathin 1963 at the age of fifty-five, Theodore Roethke (pronounced “Rett-key”) gave a reading in Seattle, which was reported in the local press anonymously ... More

Roth, Henry  

Lani Wolf

Published Online:
Jul 2017
Henry Roth, one of the twentieth century's most important Jewish authors, is known primarily for his first novel and masterpiece, Call It Sleep (1934), the story of a young Jewish boy ... More

Roth, Philip  

William H. Pritchard

Published Online:
Jul 2017
Philip Roth's literary career is extra-ordinary in a number of ways other than its continued production of surprising, vital, imaginative works. It began when his first book, Goodbye, ... More

Rukeyser, Muriel  

Jan Heller Levi

Published Online:
Jul 2017
Muriel Rukeyser's category-defying work has yet to be fully acknowledged and integrated in the canon of twentieth-century American literature. For a continually growing audience, however, ... More

The Salem Witch Trials  

Abram C. Van Engen

The Salem witch trials have gripped American imaginations ever since they occurred in 1692. At the end of the 17th century, after years of mostly resisting witch hunts and witch trial ... More

Salinger, J. D.  

Brian Henry

Published Online:
Jul 2017
J. D. Salinger's biography is in many ways a nonbiography, for the writer's fiercely defended privacy has thwarted nearly all biographical efforts since the 1950s. Thus, the information ... More

Sandburg, Carl  

Robert M. Dowling

Published Online:
Jul 2017
Carl Sandburg was a poet, political activist, journalist, biographer, historian, traveling troubadour, honorary Ph.D. many times over, and two-time winner of the Pulitzer Prize. He ... More

Schwartz, Delmore  

Frederick Ethan Fischer

Published Online:
Jul 2017
Delmore Schwartz was the poet of nighttime New York, who at age twenty-five published In Dreams Begin Responsibilities (1938), a collection of poems, a verse drama, and the title story, to ... More

Science Fiction  

Gerry Canavan

Science fiction (SF) emerges as a distinct literary and cultural genre out of a familiar set of world-famous texts ranging from Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein (1818) to Gene Roddenberry’s ... More

The Scottish Printing Diaspora, 1840–1914  

David Finkelstein

Migration was a key tool for building the social, cultural, and economic infrastructures of the “British Dominions” throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. Between 1840 and 1940, an ... More

The Second Sino-Japanese War, World War II, and Asian American Antifascism  

Christopher Vials

Published Online:
Jan 2019
For most of the Asian and Asian American writers published in the United States from 1937–1946, “fascism” was the most salient, global state of emergency, not the Japanese American ... More

Seguín, Juan Nepomuceno  

Jesús F. de la Teja

Juan Nepomuceno Seguín (1806–1890) was the leading Mexican-Texan military figure of the Texas Revolution (1835–1836) to participate on the Texas side of the struggle. He was the only ... More

Sentimental Literature  

Mary Louise Kete

Published Online:
Jul 2017
To survey the history of sentimental literature in America is to gain insight into some of the most critical moments in American culture. As Thomas Paine's influential essay of 1776 ... More