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Barth, John  

Ian Bickford

Published Online:
Jul 2017
John Barth is counted among the first generation of American postmodernist writers. Of this group, which includes Thomas Pynchon, William Gass, John Hawkes, and Donald Barthelme, Barth has ... More

The Beat Movement  

Chuck Carlise

Published Online:
Jul 2017
The Beat movement was America's first major Cold War literary movement. Originally a small circle of unpublished friends, it later became one of the most significant sources of ... More

Beattie, Ann  

Donna Seaman

Published Online:
Jul 2017
Enthralled by literature but disenchanted with graduate school, Ann Beattie began writing short stories and resolutely submitting her unsolicited manuscripts to The New Yorker. She racked ... More

Bellow, Saul  

Sanford Pinsker

Published Online:
Jul 2017
In much the same way that William Faulkner created the necessary conditions for serious literature about the modern South and, in the process, inspired generations of literary followers, ... More

Benét, Stephen Vincent  

Paul Johnston

Published Online:
Jul 2017
Stephen Vincent Benét is remembered primarily for two works: the long narrative poem John Brown's Body and the short story The Devil and Daniel Webster. These two works are characterized ... More

Berryman, John  

Philip Hobsbaum

Published Online:
Jul 2017
John Berryman was born John Allyn Smith Jr. on 25 October 1914 in McAlester, Oklahoma. He was named after his father, a bank clerk. His mother was Martha Little Smith, and both parents ... More

Berry, Wendell  

Aaron K. DiFranco

Published Online:
Sep 2017
One of the most versatile contemporary authors, Wendell Berry is renowned for his prolific output of poetry, fiction, and essays. The quality of his craft is even more impressive ... More

Bierce, Ambrose  

Molly McQuade

Published Online:
Jul 2017
Ambrose Bierce, an ironist whose choice of genre roved from predatorially sardonic verse to artfully detached war writing, was born Ambrose Gwinett Bierce on 24 June 1842, in the Ohio ... More

Bilingualism in Asian American Literature  

Jeehyun Lim

Published Online:
Jan 2019
Bilingualism is an integral element of the lives and experiences of Asian Americans as well as a condition, theme, and style of a large and diverse body of Asian American writings. The ... More

Bishop, Elizabeth  

Tyler Hoffman

Published Online:
Jul 2017
Elizabeth Bishop is one of the most original lyric voices of the twentieth century, standing with such other American poets as Robert Frost, Wallace Stevens, and Marianne Moore, who was ... More

Black Arts Movement  

William R. Nash

Published Online:
Jul 2017
The term “Black Arts Movement” describes a set of attitudes, influential from 1965 to 1976, about African-American cultural production, which assumed that political activism was a primary ... More

Black Arts Publishing and the Politics of Design  

Kinohi Nishikawa

The Black Arts movement heralded an important turn in the history of African American literature. Between 1965 and 1975, a loose confederation of African American poets, playwrights, ... More

Black Mountain Poetry  

Lacy Schutz

Published Online:
Jul 2017
In 1960 the poet Donald M. Allen published an anthology titled The New American Poetry. Just three years earlier, the poets Donald Hall, Robert Pack, and Louis Simpson had edited New Poets ... More

Bollywood and Asian American Culture  

Jigna Desai

Published Online:
Apr 2019
Popular conceptions of Bollywood imagine it as a recent entry onto the global screen and stage. Although it is not incorrect to think of Bollywood as a recent formation, scholars can point ... More

Book Culture from Below in Finland  

Tuija Laine and Kirsti Salmi-Niklander

Vernacular literacy began in Finland with the Reformation. Michael Agricola, the first Finnish reformer, studied in Wittenberg, and, after returning to Finland, translated the first books ... More

Border and la frontera in the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands  

Alicia Arrizón

In the U.S.-Mexico context, the concepts of the border, borderlands, and la frontera represent their ongoing complex geopolitical, cultural, and historical relations. With the signing of ... More

Bradstreet, Anne  

Daniel G. Brayton

Published Online:
Jul 2017
Anne Bradstreet has long been the best-known English-language woman poet of the seventeenth century and one of the most famous early American literary figures. While numerous women writers ... More

British Detective Fiction in the 19th and Early 20th Centuries  

Anne Humpherys

From ancient Greece on, fictional narratives have entailed deciphering mystery. Sophocles’ Oedipus must solve the mystery of the plague decimating Thebes; the play is a dramatization of ... More

Brodkey, Harold  

Philip Bufithis

Published Online:
Jul 2017
If we accept the well-known distinction that literary fiction is character driven and commercial fiction is plot driven, then the work of Harold Brodkey is the most literary American ... More

Brooks, Gwendolyn  

William R. Nash

Published Online:
Jul 2017
Gwendolyn Brooks, American poet, novelist, activist, and teacher, stands out for her social engagement, her professional generosity, and her literary accomplishment. In a career that ... More

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