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Concepts of Reading in the Digital Era  

Lutz Koepnick

Digital reading has been an object of fervent scholarly and public debates since the mid-1990s. Often digital reading has been associated solely with what may happen between readers and ... More

Confessional Poetry  

Philip Hobsbaum

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Confessional poetry is verse in which the author describes parts of his or her life that would not ordinarily be in the public domain. The prime characteristic is the reduction of distance ... More

The Contemporary Anglophone Romance Genre  

Hsu-Ming Teo

The romance genre is geared financially to a female readership worldwide: a genre written and consumed overwhelmingly by women, and with a male readership of around 14 percent. Since the ... More

Contemporary Australian Literary Culture  

Beth Driscoll

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Contemporary Australian literary culture is formed through networks of institutions that support writing and reading. This infrastructure, itself shaped by Australia’s history as a former ... More

Contemporary Fiction and Modernism  

Ryan Trimm

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Modernism stands as the signal literary upheaval of the long 20th century, and yet the tenuousness of its appeal to “make it new,” as Ezra Pound commanded, entails the period or periods ... More

The Contemporary Gothic  

Xavier Aldana Reyes

The writings covered to by the umbrella term “Gothic” are so varied in style, thematic interests, and narrative effects that an overarching definition becomes problematic and even ... More

Contemporary Latinx Literature in the Midwest  

Theresa Delgadillo and Leila Vieira

Latinx literature in the Midwest encompasses work created by authors from a variety of backgrounds, with authors of Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Cuban descent predominating in literature ... More

Contemporary Literature from Singapore  

Weihsin Gui

Literature in Singapore is written in the country’s four official languages: Chinese, English, Malay, and Tamil. The various literatures flourished in the late 19th and early 20th ... More

Contemporary Southern Literature  

Christopher Lloyd

From the colonial period through to the present day, the U.S. South has been seen as aberrant or at least different, as separate from, the rest of the nation. Often thought of as backward ... More

Continuity and Change in Postapartheid Fiction  

Louise Bethlehem

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
What language is adequate to describe the coming into being of the new South Africa? What literary forms does newness take? What promises does the new “postapartheid fiction” deliver (or ... More

Fenimore Cooper, James  

Charles Robert Baker

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
James Cooper (he legally added “Fenimore,” his mother's maiden name, in 1826) was born on 15 September 1789, in Burlington, New Jersey, a little more than five months after George ... More

Copyright and the Commodification of Authorship in 18th- and 19th-Century Europe  

Maurizio Borghi

The modern concept of authorship evolved in parallel with the legal recognition of the author as the subject of certain property rights within the marketplace for books. Such a market was ... More

Copyright: Author, Reader, and Meaning  

Kim Treiger-Bar-Am

Online publication date:
May 2019
Copyright gives an author control over the presentation of her work. Economic rights afford control over copies, and the noneconomic rights known as moral rights afford control over ... More

Crane, Hart  

Cornelius Browne

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
On 21 July 1899, Harold Hart Crane was born in Garrettsville, Ohio, the only child of Clarence A. Crane and Grace Hart Crane. Crane's short, troubling life in large measure parallels the ... More

Crane, Stephen  

Mark Richardson

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Stephen Crane was born in Newark, New Jersey, on 1 November 1871, the fourteenth and last child of Rev. Jonathan Townley Crane (Methodist by denomination) and Mary Helen Peck Crane (an ... More

Creeley, Robert  

Lacy Schutz

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Robert Creeley arose from a generation of poets who came to consciousness during the Great Depression and World War II and for whom these events formed a vast awareness of loss. Creeley in ... More

St. John De Crèvecoeur, J. Hector  

Kathryn W. Kemp

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
In Letters from an American Farmer (1782), a writer calling himself J. Hector St. John provides a firsthand view of the lives of ordinary Americans in the latter part of the eighteenth ... More

Crossover Literature  

Sandra L. Beckett

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Crossover literature transcends the conventionally recognized boundaries within the fiction market, blurring the borderline between adult literature and children’s literature. Books may ... More

Cuadros, Gil  

Rafael Pérez-Torres

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
Writer Gil Cuadros (1962–1996) composed an influential collection of short stories and poems, City of God (1994), that recounts the experiences of gay Chicano life in the age of AIDS. ... More

Cuban American Literatures  

Ricardo L. Ortiz

Cuba’s historical relationship with the United States predates both countries’ emergence into full political sovereignty and consists of forms of political, economic, and cultural ... More