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Edwards, Jonathan  

Jane Beal

Published Online:
Jul 2017
Jonathan Edwards is perhaps bestknown for his sermon Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God (1741). The occasion for it was a Sunday service on 8 July 1741 in a church in Enfield, ... More


Gabriele Rippl

Ekphrasis is a Greek term whose etymological meaning is “to speak out” or “to show in full.” Debates on ekphrasis go back to classical antiquity and Homer’s lines on Hephaestos making ... More

Eliot, T. S.  

Philip Hobsbaum

Published Online:
Jul 2017
Thomas Stearns Eliot was born on 26 September 1888 in St. Louis. The Eliots originally hailed from Somerset in England and settled in America in the late seventeenth century. They began as ... More

Elkin, Stanley  

David Ryan

Published Online:
Jul 2017
The writer Stanley Elkin is perhaps known best for his prodigious ear for comedy, although his work is equally admired for its virtuosic prose: its legato phrasing and staccato rhythms, ... More

Ellison, Ralph  

William R. Nash

Published Online:
Jul 2017
Although he published relatively little (several stories, two collections of essays, some prefaces, and one novel) in his lifetime, Ralph Ellison indisputably ranks among the most ... More

Emerson, Ralph Waldo  

Sheldon W. Liebman

Published Online:
Jul 2017
By 1860, the United States hadachieved what few Europeans and even fewer Americans of an earlier generation would have thought possible: a level of literary excellence so surprising that ... More

Emigration and 19th-Century British Colonial Settler Narratives  

Tamara S. Wagner

Colonial settler narratives comprise chiefly fictional as well as autobiographically inspired or anecdotal writing about emigration and settler life. The 19th century saw an increasingly ... More

The Environment in Australian Literature  

Tony Hughes-d'Aeth

While the relationship between humans and environment in Australia stretches back some 50,000 years, the colonization of the continent by Europeans in the late 18th century dramatically ... More

Environments in Western American Literature  

Susan Kollin

Western American literature is a diverse body of writing that documents human responses to the ecological changes that have reshaped the region over the years. The literature includes ... More

Erdrich, Louise  

Amanda Fields

Published Online:
Sep 2017
Louise Erdrich was born in LittleFalls, Minnesota, in 1954, the eldest of seven children raised in Wahpeton, North Dakota, not far from the Turtle Mountain Reservation, where their mother ... More

The Essay in America  

Jenny Spinner

Published Online:
Jul 2017
Any discussion of the American essay must begin with the problem of definition, rooted in the bifurcate history of the essay and in the nature of the genre itself. Depending on the type of ... More


Niels Ole Finnemann

Electronic text can be defined on two different, though interconnected, levels. On the one hand, electronic text can be defined by taking the notion of “text” or “printed text” as the ... More

Eugenics, Reproduction, and Asian American Literature  

Asha Nadkarni

Asian American literature has capaciously explored the issues of gender, sexuality, and reproduction that have been so foundational to Asian American racial formation. It has likewise ... More

The European Circulation of Nordic Texts in the Romantic Period  

Robert W. Rix

From the 1750s until the 1840s, the interest in Icelandic manuscripts of mythology and heroic sagas, as well as various forms of Nordic folklore, entered a new phase. One of the central ... More

European Literature and Book History in the Middle Ages, c. 600-c. 1450  

Lars Boje Mortensen

Medieval European literature is both broader and deeper in its basis than what is usually offered in literary histories with their focus only on a narrow canon and on vernacular languages. ... More

Factory Girl Literature across the World  

Ruth Barraclough

Published Online:
Feb 2018
Factory girl literature emerged as a powerful critique of the culture of industrialization, delving into mills, canneries and sweatshops to detail the lives of the women and girls who ... More

Fairy-Tale Films  

Pauline Greenhill

Published Online:
Apr 2018
Films incorporating fairy-tale narratives, characters, titles, images, plots, motifs, and themes date from the earliest history of the cinema, beginning with director Georges Méliès’s ... More

Fairy-Tale Symbolism: An Overview  

Francisco Vaz da Silva

Published Online:
Jan 2017
Because the marvelous elements in fairy tales call for an explanation, a cohort of bright minds have pored over the problem of fairy-tale symbolism. Models sharing the nineteenth-century ... More

Fashion and Fiction in the 19th Century  

Clair Hughes

In the new middle-class world of 19th-century Europe and America, whose development parallels that of the realist novel, dress was a clear sign of order and hierarchy—key subjects of the ... More

Fashion in 20th-Century Literature  

Cristina Giorcelli

In the Western world, for centuries, clothes were generally seen as indexes of vanity and seduction, and thus stigmatized. Since the birth of fashion in the second half of the 19th ... More