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Anne Bradstreet  

Wendy Martin

Anne Bradstreet’s early work developed from a fixed and faithful deference to the established modes and conventions of English poetry, with a focus on historical and political issues, such as the English Civil War. However, the lyric poetry that followed was deeply personal and expressed Bradstreet’s feelings of love, loss, and self-doubt. Bradstreet’s career as a poet and her journey as a Pilgrim in New England chronicled her evolution from dutiful daughter and wife whose early work honored traditional male poetic and religious authorities to a woman who thought for herself and wrote poems foregrounding her personal experience, challenging traditional gender roles as well as legitimizing the importance of her own work. Bradstreet’s resolution to write from her individual experience as mother, wife, and sometimes conflicted Christian is the wellspring of her best poetry—poetry that has emphatically established her place in American literature.

Article

de Burton, María Amparo Ruiz  

Beatrice Pita

The novels The Squatter and the Don (1885) and Who Would Have Thought It? (1872), written by María Amparo Ruiz de Burton (1832–1895), are the first novels written in English from the pen and perspective of a Mexican American woman. The author, born in Mexican Baja California, came to Northern California after the 1846–1848 Mexican American War, marrying US Army Captain Henry S. Burton. An extraordinarily talented woman, Ruiz de Burton addresses crucial issues of ethnicity, power, gender, class, and race in dialogue with a number of contemporary 19th-century discourses—political, juridical, economic, commercial, and literary—all to voice the bitter resentment of the Californios faced with despoliation and the onslaught of Anglo-American domination in the aftermath of annexation to the United States. Hers is a strong, distinctive—and notably—female voice with a critical Mexican American perspective; her novels have served to shift the benchmarks of US literature and 19th-century literary scholarship, moving it further away from an Anglo-centered, East Coast, and mostly male-centered canon. Her writings have been productive sites against which to reread both canonical and newly emerged texts. By addressing US government policies, and in that regard, racial, ethnic, and class formations, as well as foregrounding gender issues, Ruiz de Burton’s works have problematized and enriched the US literary and cultural landscape. Her rediscovered novels were republished (in 1992 and 1995, respectively) by Sánchez and Pita and have become key elements in better understanding US 19th-century literary history.