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Periodicals in Chile during the Government of Salvador Allende and the Dictatorshipfree

Periodicals in Chile during the Government of Salvador Allende and the Dictatorshipfree

  • César Zamorano DíazCésar Zamorano DíazDepartment of Linguistics and Literature, University of Santiago de Chile

Summary

Periodicals have been a significant part of Chile’s cultural history. Groups and networks of writers, intellectuals, and artists have orbited around literary and cultural periodicals with the aim of disseminating cultural and aesthetic projects. The study of periodicals addresses dialogues that have moved from the specificities of their disciplinary practice to political and social contexts. Reconstructing the trajectory of periodicals allows for the articulation of a dialogue with the voices that congregate in them to propose, question, and harbor specific currents capable of intervening in the configuration of the disciplines, the theoretical and cultural guidelines that determine an era. Dialogues that at certain junctures can transcend this resonance and expand considerably.

The history of Chile as read through cultural and literary periodicals reveals the concerns that the cultural and artistic debate promoted during two distinct periods: during the Unidad Popular project, led by the government of Salvador Allende (1970–1973), and its interruption with the coup d’état that initiated one of the bloodiest and most extensive dictatorships in Latin America (1973–1990). These concerns were articulated within a decisive collaboration of artists and writers during the Unidad Popular and altered under the persecution and rupture with the state during the dictatorship. In these two moments the journals opened debates and proposed and discussed ideas from a specific historical time, along with problematizing the exercise of their intellectual practice and reflecting on the disciplinary limits that sustain them. The analysis of the trajectory of periodicals in the cultural history of Chile recognizes the social, political, and cultural transformations of these two moments in the history of Chile.

Subjects

  • Latin American and Caribbean Literatures
  • Cultural Studies
  • Print Culture and Digital Humanities

A Country of Poets

Chile has a reputation as a country of poets. No doubt two Nobel Prize winners have contributed to this status, but it is also true that the abundance of writers who became poets would not have been possible without the articulation of groups and networks of writers who, gathered around periodicals, formed a tradition that had its greatest moment during the 1960s. Linked mainly to university institutions, periodicals became more important as they emerged from a collective or group spirit, different from the production of a book which is nourished by a personal and self-sufficient source. Periodicals such as Árbol de Letras (1967–1969), Ancora (1965–1972), Arúspice (1965–1968), Casa de la Luna: Cuadernos de Poesía (1968–1969), Carta de Poesía Los Ángeles (1967), Orfeo: Revista de Poesía y Teoría Poética (1963–1968), Portal (1965–1969/1976–1982/1984–1998), Trilce (1964–1973), Cuadernos Universitarios (1960–1970), La Honda (1966–1967), Mapocho (1963–present), and Revista Mensaje (1951–present) formed a network of writers who wrote about literature, art, poetry, culture, and politics, actively participating in the political transformations that the American continent was undergoing.1 These changes were mainly driven by the Cuban Revolution in 1959, which pushed writers and artists to define themselves around the social function of their practices, and a university reform that mobilized writers to extend their radius of influence towards the social body as a whole.

Through the journals, the relations that constitute an intellectual field, understood as a social space, relatively autonomous of production of symbolic goods, become apparent. Periodicals help visualize the system of relationships that configure the more or less specific coordinates of problems, disciplinary boundaries, and circulation of knowledge that, according to Pierre Bourdieu, constitute a whole “cultural unconscious.”2 In the same sense, Beatriz Sarlo, founder of the important Argentine journal Punto de Vista (1978–2008), said that they “are a place and an organization of different discourses, a map of intellectual relations, with their age and ideological cleavages, a communication network between the cultural and political dimensions.”3 For the same reason, according to Jorge Schwartz and Roxana Patiño, periodicals can be “thought of as a dynamic space of circulation and intersection of highly significant discourses for the study not only of literature but also of analysis, history and cultural sociology, the history of ideas and intellectual history, among other fields.”4

Fernanda Beigel makes an interesting distinction about Chilean periodicals during two different periods. She distinguishes on one hand between “business periodicalism,” limited mainly to being a source of dissemination of cultural work rather than the critical exercise of a gaze, in accordance with the definition of culture as an object of consumption, and, on the other hand, “programmatic editorialism,” as projects aimed not only at disseminating art and culture, but also at generating critical debates on current cultural productions, at modifying the prevailing programmatic axes and the often interdisciplinary proposal of cultural alternatives that intervene in the political space.5 This is directly linked to the notion of the intellectual, understood as becoming and not as a condition of certain subjects, as a practice or exercise where cultural periodicals would have a privileged space due to their hybrid character, often consolidated in time and space of a contingency. Periodicals “corroborate to what extent political subjects are constituted on the discursive plane: they were one of the scenarios where writers were ratified as intellectuals insofar as they put their word in the public dimension.”6

The contingent character, deeply rooted in a specific time, constitutes the dialogical character of the periodicals, all of them “pregnant with context” and therefore privileged documents when it comes to reconstituting and mapping the cultural models and symbolic coordinates that determine an era.7 The analysis of periodicals not only implies the analysis of the writings that make them up, but also the dialogical elements that support them, the networks and groups that make them up—activities such as meetings, congresses, and relations between groups that share certain interests—and the historical-social events that decisively affect their editorial line may be some of the keys proposed for their study. Approaching the periodicals means recognizing the urgent need to reconstruct their specific time-space, because without this, “it will be difficult to capture the drift of these periodical texts if one does not dive into the alternatives, the controversies and even the often-anecdotal nature of the cultural life that gave rise to them.”8

Periodicals are inserted in a specific time and space. Unlike the book, which calls for permanence, the periodical is embedded in an instant, which defines its own organization, its writing, and its overall shape.9 By being linked to a present, periodicals are able to establish and also subvert trends. This is how the constitution of the canon can be seen in periodicals, since their establishment implies a type of reader and a way of reading not only literature, but also a filiation with a certain collective identity. Periodicals also differ from newspapers, as the latter require greater stability and regularity for their subsistence, requiring an initial impulse of greater docility with the system for their preservation, while periodicals are assumed to be volatile and their permanence is always in dispute.

Periodicals are symptoms of the space inhabited by those who created them and the readers who contributed to their permanence. Their study, therefore, involves activating writing in its effects “in a social war that is also a conflict of every moment around what is perceived and how it can be named.”10 Periodicals are registers of evolution in its various forms that involve identities with which they are linked and ideas that they circulate. Hence the attempt to expand and broaden the territorial spaces that define the disciplines and modes of writing. The periodical, even when it belongs to specific groups that put forward clearly defined aesthetic proposals, appears with an impetus to open up spaces of communication that go beyond the group and the networks that generate it. According to Geraldine Rogers, it is the exhibitionist character that pushes them into the public space that “effectively intervenes in the distribution of the visible and the legible in the public sphere and in the market of symbolic goods.”11

The intellectual space, in its various meanings, as François Dosse indicates, always supposes a filiation between writing and social life that expands the space of the relative autonomy of the cultural and disciplinary fields. This permeability of periodicals, which is passed on by events shared during a given period, makes it possible to enter into these variations and commitments in transitory, diverse, and heterogeneous spaces shared by a “generational community,” understood not as a homogeneous whole because they depend on the same great events and changes survived during their period of receptivity, but rather implies “simply plural responses to common questions of a shared time, of a ‘spirit of time.’”12 Periodicals crucially identify the cultural and political processes in Chile at two different moments, which continue to define the social, political, and cultural relations of 21st-century Chile.

Unidad Popular

Unidad Popular sparked a period of deep reflection on culture and its interdependence with political and social changes. The active participation of artists and writers in the “Chilean road to socialism” that led Salvador Allende to presidency in 1970 meant that cultural and literary journals, which mainly dealt with current literary productions, reviewing the books being published, were quickly led to think about the issues of art and writing, the scope of their creation, and the political function of the aesthetic. During this period, periodicals were sources of convergence of this relationship between culture and politics, between art and citizenship, which was manifested both in the periodic publications derived from research centers and universities and also in the publications that were formed under the auspices of the state publishing house Quimantú. Although it is not possible to determine with precision the totality of periodicals that circulated during this period, some examples include Áncora (1965–1972), from the University of Chile in Antofagasta; Marxism and Revolution (1973), from MAPU (Movimiento de Acción Popular Unitaria); Revista Chilena de Cultura (1954–1973); Primer Plano (1972–1973), dedicated exclusively to cinema; Problemas de Literatura (1972); Principios: Revista Teórica y Política del Comité Central del Partido Comunista de Chile (1939–1973), among others. All of them defined in different ways the composition of culture and the form in which various disciplines of art and humanities were incorporated into an intense dialogue with civil society. Periodicals opened up the debate about shaping a new society and a new man, which Eduardo Vassallo proposed as a more profound change, in the sense of an epochal proposal that not only sought to end social inequalities, but rather to “establish and give life to a Poetics as a fully supportive and humane dwelling for Chile.”13

Cormorán

The journal Cormorán, directed by Enrique Lihn, with Germán Marín as chief editor, began in August 1969 and ended in 1970, publishing just eight issues (see figure 1). The journal gave wide coverage to the national cultural field. It covered diverse artistic expressions, such as theater, plastic arts, and cinema, in regular sections dedicated to a wide spectrum of cultural activities, both local and international. Important local writers such as Nicanor Parra, Jorge Guzmán, Luis Oyarzún, and Pedro Lastra collaborated. It also included debates and interviews with Latin American writers such as Mario Benedetti, Miguel Ángel Asturias, Manuel Puig, and Severo Sarduy, among others. The structure of the periodical, consisting of sixteen pages, had a significant number of reviews and brief references to the cultural panorama in sections called “Papel Picado” [Chopped up Paper] “La Caravana Inmóvil” [Still Caravan] and a set of works of greater length and depth that included essays, interviews, round tables, and fragments of works, etc.

Figure 1. Cormorán journal covers from 1970.

Source: Personal collection of César Zamorano Díaz.

In its first editorial, this journal indicated that its pages would not passively record cultural work, but would examine it from a critical perspective.14 The periodical served as a catalyst for a set of proposals regarding the role of intellectuals and writers in the social changes announced by Salvador Allende’s government. As an example, a document published in its last issue in 1970 called “for the creation of a popular and national culture.”15 A collective of fifteen writers called Taller de Escritores de la Unidad Popular [the Writers’ Workshop of the Unidad Popular] stated their commitment to the so-called “transition to socialism” in the construction of a coherent cultural policy, where intellectual work would be fundamental to the development of a critical consciousness capable of confronting the existing conditions of exploitation, freeing man from the ignorance he has been subjected to, and leading the country towards cultural independence as its destiny. A cultural policy that projected an instance of production of a collective subjectivity, where art and culture are not put at the service of politics, but instead present a new form of distribution of the sensible. For example, Enrique Lihn proposed the work of José Balmes (a Spanish painter who arrived in Chile in 1939 as a refugee) as an example of art that does not submit to politics nor to the mere contingency of protest. He praised “the effectiveness with which Balmes’s painting fulfills the transition to ideological commitment, . . . without this implying any renunciation of the specific nature of the level from which painting is articulated with other branches of cultural production.” He further contended that an art that supports the social transformations the country is undergoing, without merely being in the service of politics, thinks of politics in conjunction with the artistic and cultural constructions that shape it: “This careful art has not been instrumentalized for the benefit of a political message, it tends to recreate it in its own inalienable language.”16

Academic Journals

At the same time, academic journals also changed their editorial lines. The periodical Atenea, published by the Universidad de Concepción, whose longevity commences with its first issue in 1924, changed its name to Nueva Atenea in 1970, with Enrique Lihn its new director (see figure 2). Its editorial in issue 424 of 1970 stated that in the past the periodical was a vehicle for academic exchange, but that “at one time it could feel too comfortable in the atmosphere of a somewhat idyllic humanism” and that it was necessary to incorporate in its “pages the means of expression that, in recent decades, have reached a certain degree of maturity in our country, the theater, folklore, cinema and television.”17 Its impetus, a common hallmark of many periodicals of the time, suggests “the desire to deepen and strengthen a Latin American consciousness that expresses through this periodical the basic unity of the countries of the continent in terms of their problems and solutions.”18

Figure 2. Covers of the 1970 Nueva Atenea journal.

Source: Personal collection of César Zamorano Díaz.

The periodical’s commitment to the Unidad Popular government was sincere, reflecting the politicization of the period that spread to all levels of society.

This is the first time that a Chilean government is preparing to tackle the problem of culture head on, and this purpose alone sanctions for us the creative character of culture with respect to social life, based on a mutual internal relationship.19

This statement echoed a growing impetus that seeks to establish dialogues between culture and society, between different disciplines with “the will to dispense with academic preciousness for the benefit of a word that is as close as possible to action.”20 Universities and periodicals serving as means of disseminating knowledge amplified the approaches promoted by the Unidad Popular and thus “respond to the challenge of a new experience in this country—the socialization of culture—by controlling it without forcing it to conform to a rigid pre-established theoretical scheme.”21

Like Atenea, Aisthesis: Revista Chilena de Investigaciones Estéticas, which began publishing in 1966 by the newly formed Centro de Investigaciones Estéticas (1964) at the Universidad Católica de Chile, assumed a historical position as the political changes in Chile with the Unidad Popular deepened (see figure 3). Thus, in 1970, an issue was dedicated to poetry and its problems in Chile; participants included Juvencio Valle, Efraín Barquero, Gonzalo Rojas, Jorge Teillier, and Waldo Rojas, among others. Alfonso Calderón’s article, dedicated to the then recent National Prize winner, Nicanor Parra, and the memorable work of Jorge Teillier, echoed the political momentum of the time and referred to the role of poetry in its contingency:

The bourgeoisie has tried to kill poetry, and then collect it as a luxury object. . . . The poem is a marginal being, but from this marginality and this displacement its force can be born: that of transforming poetry into a vital experience and accessing another world, beyond the disgusting world in which it lives.22

Figure 3. Aisthesis journal cover, 1971.

Source: Personal collection of César Zamorano Díaz.

The subsequent issues from 1970 and 1971, entitled “Education through Art and Its Problems in Chile,” in two parts, investigated the forms of promotion and diffusion of art, and what would be the function of the aesthetic discipline and art. “Understanding that art is a sensitive means of apprehending reality means converting it into a primary need for a society.”23 In the social stage in which Chile found itself, expanding the visibility of art would convert it into a social experience, reaching all corners of society:

We have to break with what we know as the “educated public” and make our society a dynamic whole . . . without cultural and economic differences, which are the bricks in the long wall that originates the social differences that separate men.24

Tebaida (1968–1972), another important periodical, was entirely dedicated to poetry. Sponsored by the Universidad de Chile, it was directed by Alicia Galaz, and published nine issues with a very precise format, where all its elements—its introductions to sections and their poems, its layout on the page, the images that accompany it—contribute to give expression to a set of ideas where the poetic word takes on vital importance as a fruitful expression of a Latin American people (see figure 4). It declares “TEBAIDA EXHIBITS, FROM ITS SPECIAL PERSPECTIVE, THE PERMANENCE OF THIS AMERICAN LOVE THAT HAS SUNG, MADE LIFE AND DEATH, IN ITS INDIVIDUAL DOINGS, ANONYMOUS EXISTENCE AND THOSE OF THE GREAT NAMES OF THE PEOPLE.”25

Figure 4. Tebaida journal.

Source: Personal collection of César Zamorano Díaz.

Its proposal embraces an American integration through poetry, with sections dedicated to the national poetry of Peru, the United States, Puerto Rico, and Chile. It is also accompanied on each page by Guillermo Deisler’s serigraphy, wonderful images in dialogue with poems by Jorge Teillier, Enrique Lihn, Kavafis, Omar Lara, and Ernesto Cardenal. Tebaida harmoniously balances its aesthetic interest with its social and contingent commitments (see figure 5). An example of the latter is the public trial of capitalism held in the city of Antofagasta, which was reviewed in its fifth installment under the title “Poetry’s Trial of Capitalism” where poet Andrés Sabella, storyteller Mario Bahamonde, and painter Waldo Valenzuela put the capitalist system on the bench, which when found guilty, was symbolically hanged on the scaffold (figure 5).26

Figure 5. Tebaida journal.

Source: Personal collection of César Zamorano Díaz.

Artistic expressions are also considered through a regional key, opening a discussion around the question of art and literature that is the result of the particularity of the continent. In Taller de Letras [Literature Workshop] (see figure 6), a journal created in 1971 by the Departamento de Letras of Universidad Católica de Chile, the writer Augusto Roa Bastos warns of the risk of a loss of literary power by the merely reactionary: “even those that are apparently ‘progressive,’ and that hide nothing but a new form of dogmatism: those manias of sociological confiscation, in the spirit of the crudest or most naive sect.”27 Faced with a pressing physical and social reality, the Latin American novel was confronted with its own definition and its origin in the European bourgeois novel, namely, as an instrument of the inner worlds of the individual, of “observing society from the angle of the individual’s vision, but rather as an act of extreme reaction against their class consciousness and assuming, for an ethical imperative, the representation of sectors and human groups oppressed by their own class.”28 Roa Bastos proposes to replace the regional novels as forms of representation and description of the world by a narrative that reflects on itself and allows new dimensions of Latin America to be shown:

These themes and problems of the profound reality of man are significant, first, because they are treated aesthetically and, second, because the investigation of this profound reality of the individual in literature does not cut him off or isolate him from the social context.29

Finally, Roa Bastos warns that just as the “superficial forms of realism” must be overcome, the risk of mere experimentation and a pure game of language that would constitute “a new formalism” must also be avoided.

Figure 6. Cover of the first issue of Taller de Letras.

Source: Personal collection of César Zamorano Díaz.

A periodical that mobilized an important number of intellectuals was Cuadernos de la Realidad Nacional [National Reality Notebooks] (1969–1973), a quarterly directed by Jacques Chonchol, with Hernán Valdés as editorial secretary (see figure 7). Created by the Centro de Estudios de la Realidad Nacional (CEREN), directed by sociologist Manuel Antonio Garretón, it published sixteen issues. The center was closed in September 1973 and its members were exonerated and exiled. The periodical proposed to analyze the national reality in a regional key, paying special attention to the relations of dependence of Latin America from a social sciences and humanities perspective. As Josefina Lira points out, the periodical is an “effort to break with dependency by adhering to the ideas of the Revolution. Thus, these intellectuals worked with a view that preferably ‘prescribed,’ ‘imagined’ and ‘proposed’ an order of society and the country.”30 In this way, it was attentive to the sociological, historical, and cultural analysis made possible by the new conditions developing in Chile, considering how humanist disciplines constitute the mobilizing axes of the necessary changes. Although the periodical reflected primarily a sociological prism, it gradually incorporated publications tending to analyze culture as a political and aesthetic problem. Hernán Valdés, a member of CEREN, stated that a cultural policy should develop a new culture, capable of strengthening the capacity of popular forces to construct their own forms of expression,

and if the participation of the marginalized classes is to be real, it has to be done with media that have been marginalized until now. Not with the instruments that have “represented” their universe as a show for the bourgeoisie.31

Figure 7. Cover of Cuadernos de la Realidad Nacional, no. 12 (1972).

Source: Personal collection of César Zamorano Díaz.

For Valdés, language as an articulator of individual and collective experience must also be a point of struggle that would allow for the expansion of influence and increase of social transformations: “the people must appropriate the language and must be, consequently, the producer of the culture that they consume.”32 Some of his work questioned not only the verticality of the scheme in which culture is inserted, but also debated a series of proposals about the status of intellectual work and its nature as a protagonist of society and its changes. This criticism was directed both at the intellectual avant-garde seen in the periodical Cormorán, and at the “chemically pure revolutionaries” who reject everything that does not come from the popular masses.33

Quimantú Publishing House

Editorial Quimantú was a government project created to foster the publication of domestic and foreign artists, writers, and theorists, as well as to distribute their works at very low prices and even for free, in order to strengthen the critical consciousness of the masses of people who had hitherto been destined to poverty and ignorance. Quimantú was born in 1971, when the Allende government bought the bankrupt Zigzag publishing house. It became an effective instrument in the development of the cultural project of the Unidad Popular, which intended to generate a new culture and, at the same time, allow mass access to artistic and literary works that had been restricted to a small segment of the population. Periodic publications were also part of its editorial proposal, with a diverse set of periodicals, ranging from comic books, such as El Manque, Delito, Agente Silencio, or Espía 13, to publications that accounted for the political contingency and popular information, such as Ahora, Mayoría, and La Firme. Its director, Alberto Vivanco, stated that

The plan of the periodical was simple and absolutely necessary: to explain through comics the projects and achievements of the Popular Government, reaching the great masses, usually orphaned of all information in a simple and direct way, about contingent issues of social and economic policies.34

Periodicals dedicated to working women and housewives were also created, such as Paloma, and also periodicals for young people, such as Onda or the children’s periodical Cabro Chico, which promoted values of solidarity and “transmit[ed] a creative, positive and constructive image to children.”35

La Quinta Rueda

La Quinta Rueda [The Fifth Wheel], a monthly cultural periodical published by Quimantú in 1972, was directed by the journalist, film, and art critic Hans Ehrmann, together with Carlos Maldonado, the writer Antonio Skármeta, and the critic Mario Salazar (see figure 8). This cultural periodical managed to publish nine issues before it was abruptly silenced by the coup d’état in September 1973. It was intended to become an “organ of discussion” for all those who had “something to contribute to the diagnosis and development of our cultural reality.”36 It sought to broaden the resonance of culture and art, spreading in its pages the development of literature, art, theater, and cinema that makes visible an impressive advance of artistic expressions, together with a rethinking of cultural and disciplinary practices in the context of the Chilean road to socialism. In this sense, the discussion on a cultural policy promoted by the government had ample resonance in this periodical.

Figure 8. Covers of La Quinta Rueda (1972–1973).

Source: Personal collection of César Zamorano Díaz.

Even as a state periodical, it was not exempt from criticism of the process that was taking place and the way in which culture was being relegated to a social and practical agenda. Within the periodical, culture would be “the capacity of a people to build its future according to the peculiarities of its environment, of its own thinking, feeling and doing.”37 The fifth edition is presented as an instrument of discussion and dissemination of the national cultural reality, as stated in the editorial of its second issue:

Ours was a position of principle: to be born with what is ours. For us, culture does not begin in London, Paris or New York. We must first reflect the Chilean reality, then the Latin American one, and only then the great metropolises. To claim the opposite order is nothing less than to subordinate oneself once again to the mechanisms of cultural dependence.38

The role of culture in the vital space and time of Unidad Popular was also the subject of interest in the cultural heritage of literature, art, cinema, and the media, which questioned their existence and the conditions of possibility for each of them. The interdependence between the political and social issues with cultural expressions was considered a priority and, therefore, it had to be thought out in all its complexity. “That a change in economic conditions follows, mechanically, a transformation in cultural conditions is flatly refused,” says Mariano Aguirre, who in the second issue carried out a survey of eight writers proposing that the creative process, although marked by social changes, also “maintains a relative autonomy and is governed by specific laws.”39 The answers given by the respondents are diverse: differences between historical time and narrative time (Braulio Arenas), the urgency of literature as a denunciation against fascism (Poli Délano), against the novel-tabloid (Guillermo Atías), as a propitious moment for the development of literature (Manuel Miranda Sallorenzo, Alfonso Alcalde), which again shows the heterogeneity of positions on the subject. In the prologue to the book that won the Carlos Pezoa Véliz contest organized by Quimantú publishing house, Jorge Jobet states that the responsibility of the writer is to be an “engine of change” that can express human and social nature. However, this commitment must be opposed to mere functionality: “the writer is a man committed to his time, which feeds and vivifies it, a commitment that should not mean submission to certain slogans, but free expression of our moral being.”40

The Coup d’État: A Blow to the Tongue

The 1973 coup d’état led to seventeen years of civil-military dictatorship that intervened in all material and cultural conditions of society. The coup repressed all social bases and collective projects, deployed by years of social struggles and theoretical-political reflections that led to Unidad Popular, through the torture, murder, exile, and arbitrary detention of all those who supported the government of Salvador Allende. Gradually, the collective dream of emancipation gave way to the free market as a new paradigm that replaced the lost social ties: “the free market is constituted in a cultural discourse that, . . . unfolds hegemonically in society: a scenario of intensified spectacularization.”41 The coup cemented the idea that neoliberalism was inevitable, even necessary, for a large part of the population to suffer the horrors of repression and the pauperization.

Due to the drastic limits of any form of expression, culture would be patrolled by the totalitarian suspicion of the military boot. The entire artistic scene during the Unidad Popular, such as the new Chilean song, the popular theater, painters and sculptors, academics and writers, was strongly repressed and all forms of communication that fostered the formation of a poetics of the time were annulled. Until the end of the 1970s, the dictatorship systematically censored literature and thought through the National Division of Social Communication (DINACOS) which gave the permission to publish books and periodicals. Then in the 1980s, the Ministry of the Interior carried out this task. In the journal Hoy, June 24–30, 1981, Jorge Ivan Hubner and Enrique Campos Menéndez, writers who worked for the repressive bureaucracy, justified the intervention by stating that

censorship does not exist in Chile for those who write with the honest purpose of illustrating thought. It only exists for those who want to take advantage of literature for ends that are alien and antagonistic to it, such as violence and subversion.42

The publishing industry suffered a systematic repression that is exemplified by the closure of the thriving Quimantú publishing house. The periodicals dependent on universities, literary groups, and political organizations were reduced to a minimum because the space of the commons was eradicated. The independent periodicals that did not depend directly on departments disappeared. The government intervened in the universities and made the periodicals change their editorial line, which during the period of Unidad Popular were strongly rooted in building bridges of communication with the social world.

Geraldine Rogers points out the very nature of periodicals: their visibility, their exposure.43 How can one write and speak under the yoke of the dictatorship? The military apparatus is sustained by maintaining the totality of life in a permanent exhibition that observes and rules everything. The periodicals, clandestine survivors—which had been persecuted, eliminated, and burned—reappeared gradually in desolate Chile. New ways of making cultural periodicals emerged, looking for languages that would activate art both in Chile and in exile. The cultural scene, mainly of those groups opposed to the dictatorship, barely at first, opened spaces in the semi-clandestine realm, in the form of cultural peñas (small gatherings of people linked to the left, where music and poetry reading were essential). Yet by means of sophisticated intervention devices, the spaces of participation were drastically reduced, forcing the search for new ways of recording, denouncing, and condemning the strategies of a totalizing model of life, in the negative form of a policy of surveillance and control, as well as its affirmative setting of a construction of a new docile, fearful, and conservative subjectivity.

Because the institutional spaces were silenced by repression and censorship, resulting in the so-called “cultural blackout,” culture and literature sought new models of communication and preservation of the word to think about the life experience of this era. From there emerged a number of cultural and literary periodicals that inhabited what Horacio Eloy called the “Republic of Silence,” as a sign of being outside the official circuits of the dictatorship.44

No accurate account of the total number of periodicals that circulated during the dictatorship exists. Due to the clandestine, artisanal, and precarious nature of many of them, only partial records of a significant number of periodicals remain accessible—ranging from the properly political and denunciative ones, such as APSI, Hoy, Cauce, and Análisis, to periodicals made up of small groups of poets, writers, and artists who tried to unblock speech and recompose the painful body through writing and art.

Poetry Journals

Poetic sensitivity was a constant force of resistance during the dictatorship, and poetry journals from small groups that met in clubs and speakeasies quickly appeared, helping to alleviate the official cultural blackout. However, as the poet Thomas Harris points out, “there was also a very strong reaction from the poets: we lit up the night of the dictatorship with verses.”45 In late 1973, the periodical Envés was born, guided by a group of young students from the Universidad de Concepción under the direction of Mario Milanca, Nicolás Miquea, and Carlos Cociña, who had already published the only issue of the Fuego Negro journal in June 1973 (see figure 9). With a triptych-type format, that is, folded in three parts, it managed to open up space for a number of literary and poetic journals that broke the siege of silence and despair that ran through the streets of Chile. Its last issue came out in April 1975.

Figure 9. Envés journal covers (1974).

Source: Personal collection of César Zamorano Díaz.

Like Envés, in 1974 Pájaro de Cuentas was created in a triptych format and written in the handwriting of its authors, with illustrations by the painter Guillermo Nuñez, who was arrested and exiled at the end of that year. It published three issues, which were distributed clandestinely from hand to hand. Aumen appeared in 1975 on the island of Chiloé as a poetry periodical dependent on the literary workshop Aumen, directed by the poets Carlos Alberto Trujillo and Renato Cárdenas. It published eleven issues in mimeographed format between 1975 and 1985.

Palabra Escrita appeared in 1979 and published twenty-one issues until 1989. It was directed by the poet José Martínez Fernández who had a wide network of publications, sharing his writings and correspondents from all over Chile and from exile as well (see figure 10). From the city of Concepción in 1980 arose Postdata, which published six issues until 1986 under the edition of Carlos Decap, Tomás Harris, and Juan Zapata. Postdata proposed itself as a space of communication, creation, and literary poetic reflection, “We postulate a poetic attitude that speaks a transforming and renovating relationship, but inscribed in the context of the Chilean and Latin American poetic tradition.”46

Figure 10. Palabra Escrita. Tribute to Salvador Allende (1987).

Source: Personal collection of César Zamorano Díaz.

The poetry journal Trilce was created by a group of students eager to cultivate poetry from the active creative productivity of the Literary Generation of the 1950s, both nationally and in Latin America. Among its founding members were Claudio Molina, Luis Zaror, Enrique Valdés, and Omar Lara, joined soon after by Carlos Cortínez, Federico Schopf, Juan Armando Epple, Walter Hoefler, Waldo Rojas, Jaime Concha, Guillermo Araya, Eugenio Matus, Gastón Gaínza, Carlos Santander, Grínor Rojo, Juan Guido Burgos, Carlos Ibacache, and Luis Oyarzún. The poet Omar Lara embodied the permanence and continuity of the publication, especially after the 1973 coup d’état. From exile, Lara staged the continuity of Trilce, refounding it in 1982, thanks to his own efforts and the support of other Chileans and foreigners (see figure 11). The periodical continues as a true reservoir of the most relevant letters of national and international poetry, becoming an obligatory worldwide reference of Latin American poetry. During its half-century of existence, Trilce has sheltered in its pages a brilliant constellation of poets and writers, including Bertolt Brecht, Guillaume Apollinaire, Octavio Paz, Roberto Fernández Retamar, Pablo Neruda, and Roberto Bolaño. From a national level to the world, Enrique Lihn, Luis Oyarzún, Jorge Teillier, and Omar Lara himself, among others. Lara managed to publish sixteen issues of the journal until 1973; it would reappear in 1982 in Madrid, where he was in exile. For Lara, the periodical had not disappeared for almost ten years “because of fatigue and languor, but because of a vast shock in front of which the poetic word is defenseless.”47

Figure 11. Trilce journal covers, no. 10, 1966 (left) and no. 17, 1982 (right).

Source: Personal collection of César Zamorano Díaz.

Art and Word

The periodical Manuscritos (1975), produced by the Department of Humanistic Studies of the Universidad de Chile, was the first “scripto-visual” proposal carried out from the point of view of criticism and theory during the dictatorship, as well as a first attempt to document the emerging cultural scene. The periodical, directed by Cristián Huneeus, commissioned Ronald Kay to plan and edit the periodical, together with Catalina Parra, who would take charge of the “visualization” of the publication. Manuscritos broke with all the standards of what can be considered an academic periodical, following a path derived from the tradition of cultural periodicals, getting closer to the art catalogue format developed later in Chile. In a little over 140 pages, the periodical ventures into various artistic and cultural productions, including art, photography, philosophy, and poetry, among others. The periodical rescued the poetic interventions called El Quebrantahuesos (see figure 12) made in 1952 by Nicanor Parra, Enrique Lihn, and Alejandro Jodorowsky. The original project, recovered by Manuscritos through photographs, consisted of an intervention in the city, both of the space and of the public language, by creating texts from cuttings of local newspapers, superimposed through a collage technique and placed on the walls of Santiago. Recovered by Ronald Kay from a warehouse belonging to Nicanor Parra, the more than ten collages that made up El Quebrantahuesos were the object with which the periodical began, followed by a reading by Kay, entitled “Rewriting.”48

Figure 12. Manuscritos journal. Cover (left) and reproduction of El Quebrantahuesos (right).

Source: Personal collection of César Zamorano Díaz.

The strategies designed by Kay are undoubtedly determined by the conditions of producing an art and altering a symbolic order as a practice after the coup. Since it is impossible to recover the immediate past, the art of 1952 was used as a gesture of a work, which is made public, to alter the public order in which its actualization becomes uncomfortable. There is no indication or reference to a notion of people or the popular, but we do see in Kay’s work an appeal to the collective as a multitude and a space of the public against the ideology and practice of the private. El Quebrantahuesos intervened in the street, rewriting the image of a dictatorial order that is already propagating its neoliberal project. Thus, writing is printed on the image of the public dressed as a multitude in line outside the Banco de Chile, as a representation of capitalist control and the privatization of social space. As in 1952, Kay’s “Rewriting” (see figure 13) alters the space of the page/street to transform the functionality of the disciplined space of the commercial sector.

Figure 13. Manuscritos. Ronald Kay “Rewriting,” pp. 26–27.

Source: Personal collection of César Zamorano Díaz.

The periodical Manuscritos is a complex artistic object, which pushes against the linearity of its reading and observation. By posing not only as a theoretical proposal, but also by inscribing its handwriting in a visualization, it gives it an unusual density, almost as camouflage, which, despite that, was not enough to avoid the watchful eye of censors. Although more than three thousand copies were published, most of them were sent to a locked cellar by order of the rector appointed by the dictatorship.

The cultural periodicals were an essential space to understand the deep transformations and modalities of resignification that this scenario of prohibition constituted for Chilean society. The periodical CAL (Coordinación Artística Latinoamericana) [Latin American Artistic Coordination] published only four issues during 1979 (see figure 14). Under the direction of Luz Pereira (owner of the CAL art gallery), and Nelly Richard as editor, the last two issues, made in collaboration with renowned critics and artists of the time such as Enrique Lihn, Ronald Kay, Raúl Zurita, Diamela Eltit, Carlos Leppe, and Carlos Altamirano, among others, developed through interviews, special themes, and visual interventions the main interests of the artistic reality of the time. For its brief existence, it too became one of the most important means of public dialogue and dissemination of an emerging artistic scene interested in building new languages to convey new forms of expression in its specific context.

Figure 14. CAL journal covers (1979).

Source: Personal collection of César Zamorano Díaz.

In its first editorial, CAL sets out to reflect on “contemporary thought styles, on art and the existence of the man of our time,” proposing an intervention of art and literature in society: “We do not want to separate art from life, intelligence from sensitivity, the artist’s workshop from the man of the street.”49 The unpublished dialogues between image and word that are being practiced in the art scene of the late 1970s, which Nelly Richard would later call the Escena de Avanzada (neo-avant-garde), can be seen in both the Manuscritos periodical and CAL.

As an example of this is a photo on a black background of a corpse lying in the street taken from a news media. Next to it, a note says, “man and violence as a constant concern of the artist” (figure 15). The artistic proposals published in the periodical CAL by Carlos Leppe, Eugenio Dittborn, Diamela Eltit, and Enrique Lihn appealed to this contingency and expressed their intervention in the symbolic totalizing imaginaries of a conservative and foundational dictatorship. The new devices used by art, the appeal to the body as a place where dominations are registered, the incorporation of the word and its problematization, all give an account of this contingency and to circumvent censorship through complex registers. All these contributions led to the identification of art as a problem that afflicts a new form of artistic expression permeated by the precariousness of its time. The periodical CAL tried to be a catalyst for these artistic impulses that were developing from limitation and silence and that installed the possibility of affecting a besieged present through art.

Figure 15. CAL no. 1 (1979), p. 15.

Source: Personal collection of César Zamorano Díaz.

Cultural Journals

La Castaña: Revista de Humor, Gráfica y Poesía [The Chestnut: Journal of Humor, Graphics and Poetry] (1983–1988), edited by Luis Albornoz, Pía Barros, Jorge Montealegre, and Hernán Venegas, was created with precarious materials such as wrapping paper (see figure 16). It moved within the semi-clandestinity of the times, as Jorge Montealegre states, it was illegal, but allowed: “we requested authorization to circulate; the dictatorship never gave it, but we published it anyway, with our names and addresses.” And later adds: “In fact, we found ourselves preferring semi-legality to clandestinity, the vindication of authorships in the name of battle.”50 He explains that at La Castaña “without being insensitive to pain or politically uninformed, we prefer humor and irony to the grave and pamphleteer tone.”51 The intimate relationship with its time can be widely recognized in the theme of its texts, in the contingency of approach and its imminent writing sensitive to the vicissitudes of the moment.

Figure 16. La Castaña journal covers, no. 6, 1986 (left) and no. 7, 1987 (right).

Source: Personal collection of César Zamorano Díaz.

La Gota Pura [The Pure Drop] (1981–1986) with ten issues collected the writing of resistance catacombs in peñas, poetry readings, and independent bookstores (see figure 17). The periodical dedicated to poetry was directed by Ramón Díaz Eterovic and Leonora Vicuña. Eterovic gives us a glimpse of the periodical’s editorial project:

The name seemed appropriate to us both because of its origin and the meaning we gave to poetry and to a periodical that should be a sort of drop of water, pure and libertarian, in the middle of the mud of the time.52

Poetry as resistance is evident in its poetic exhibition and in his editorials, such as in issue seven of 1983:

And even in the social and immediate human order, when the Bread Bearers of the old courtship give way to the Torch Bearers, in the poetic imagination the high passion of the people in search of clarity is still lit.53

Figure 17. La Gota Pura journal covers, no. 7 and no. 8 from 1983.

Source: Personal collection of César Zamorano Díaz.

The urgency of the transformations that took place during 1988 and the plebiscite that meant the material (though not symbolic or practical) departure of Augusto Pinochet caused the interruption of some periodicals such as Número Quebrado [Broken Number] (1988–1999), a biannual periodical directed by Miguel Vicuña, designed by the artist Carlo Altamirano, with a powerful editorial board (Juan Luis Martínez, Humberto Gianini, Pedro Lastra, Adriana Valdés, and Jorge Edwards) that published its first issue in 1988 and the second in 1989:

I must reiterate to the reader that the material gathered in this issue 2/2, with the sole exception of this editorial note and a reading commentary, is at least 8 months prior to December 14, 1989—the date of the political promise of the beginning of a transition directed, through the self-critical tutelare, toward a possible deferred democracy.54

However, despite its intention to reappear again in 1990 this did not happen, and the periodical expanded the register of periodicals that are short-lived, but which are capable of transcribing a process, in this case, the end of the dictatorship and the beginning of democracy.

Periodicals during the Unidad Popular were marked by a reflection on the disciplinary limits, the function of art and literature in the process of national transformation. The interaction between literary and popular culture, intellectuals, and the state was collaborative, although not free from conflicts and tensions. The coup d’état in 1973 broke this alliance and cultural production was systematically persecuted. Culture was considered a danger to the new neoliberal order. The cultural, literary, and artistic journals trace a diversity of writings that show not only the fracture enacted by the civic-military coup, but also the testimony of the suffering and the loss of a sociocultural project already suspended. Periodicals channeled these artistic impulses to modify their dissent, developed from within limitations and silences, yet installed the possibility of affecting a besieged present through art and literature.

Discussion of the Literature

Periodical studies have grown considerably in recent years. Countries such as Argentina and Mexico have been pioneers in establishing platforms and repositories, facsimile editions of publications lost on the shelves have come to life again, allowing for the recognition of traditions and debates that bring new light to current discussions. In Chile, unfortunately, it has not had the same development and therefore the enormous effort of Memoria Chilena to digitalize a large number of periodicals, mainly from the first half of the 20th century, is recognized. However, the dissemination and study of a large part of the periodicals published during the 1960s and 1970s has not yet been adequately developed, precisely because of the difficulty of obtaining the original sources. The same occurs with periodicals published during the Chilean exile, where even basic information is not accessible, with the great majority, and in many cases only general references, known from secondary sources.

The study of Latin American periodicals exploded during the 1990s, with special issues of prestigious journals that tried to delimit the field of study and develop analysis of specific cases. In France, for example, the journal America Cahiers du CRICCAL published three issues in 1990, 1992, and 1993 dedicated to periodicals in Latin America. Organized temporarily (the first monographic issue goes from 1919 to 1939, the second from 1940 to 1970, and finally the third issue covers 1970 to 1990), the issues are divided by geographical areas, with interesting articles about the most important journals in each region of Latin America. Also, the book compiled by Saúl Sosnowski, La Cultura de un Siglo: América Latina en sus Revistas [The Culture of a Century: Latin America in Its Journals], which has the value of being edited and published in Latin America, compiles a series of works around the influence and importance of periodicals in Latin American cultural production.55 We should also add the notable contribution of the special issue directed by Jorge Schwartz and Roxana Patiño in the Revista Iberoamericana (2004), which focuses on the production of journals in Latin America with a strong emphasis on what has been developed in Brazil, often forgotten by Spanish-speaking critics. Added to these collective efforts with a continental outlook are the two volumes of Revistas Culturales Latinoamericanas [Latin American Cultural Journals], coordinated by Lydia Elizalde from Mexico, ranging from 1920–1960 (Volume I) to 1960–2008 (Volume II), published in 2008 and 2010, respectively, and Escrituras en Tránsito: Revistas y Redes Culturales en América Latina [Writings in Transit: Journals and Cultural Networks in Latin America] edited by César Zamorano.56 The book Almacenes de un Tiempo en Fuga: Revistas Culturales en la Modernidad Hispánica [Stores of a Time on the Run: Cultural Journals in Hispanic Modernity], edited by Hanno Ehrlicher and Nanette Rißler-Pipka, has the value of reflecting on periodicals as an object of study and its methodological considerations.57

The study by Alexandra Pita González and María del Carmen Grillo, “Una Propuesta de Análisis para el Estudio de Revistas Culturales” [A Proposal of Analysis for the Study of Cultural Journals], proposes a methodology for the analysis of periodicals that addresses the material, immaterial, and intermediate dimensions.58 The relationship of journals with their present has attracted the attention of several works, such as “Las Revistas Culturales como Documentos de la Historia Latinoamericana” [Cultural Journals as Documents of Latin American History] by Fernanda Beigel, and “Intelectuales y Revistas: Razones de una Práctica” [Intellectuals and Journals: Reasons for a Practice] by Beatriz Sarlo, who proposes periodicals as “test benches.”59

The work of Horacio Tarcus deserves special attention, whose latest publication Las Revistas Culturales Latinoamericanas: Giro Material, Tramas Intelectuales y Redes Revisteriles [Latin American Cultural Journals: Material Turns, Intellectual Plots and Journals Networks] offers us a deep look at the universe of periodicals in Latin America, the origins of the research, and the state of progress in the conformation of a field of research on Latin American journals today.60 Academic journals have also been determinant in hosting studies and analyses where periodicals have been protagonists. The dossier “Episodes of Latin American Literary History from Intellectual Networks and Archives,” directed by Claudio Maíz and Ramiro Zó is a relevant example.61 Also, “Periodicals and Cultural Networks in Latin America,” coordinated by Geraldine Rogers and César Zamorano, allows the observation of the contribution of a group of journals to political, cultural, and literary history in Latin America.62

The field of studies in Chile has been slow, but some incipient work has begun that will hopefully come to make up for the weakness in the research of literary studies on periodicals. Focused mainly on the 19th century and first half of the 20th century, some facsimile editions of the Los Diez and Revista de Artes y Letras have been published, together with two books by Marina Alvarado, the first Revistas Culturales y Literarias Chilenas de 1900 a 1920: Legitimadores del Campo Literario Nacional [Chilean Cultural and Literary Journals from 1900 to 1920: Legitimizers of the National Literary Field] and her second book entitled Revistas Culturales Chilenas del Siglo XIX (1842–1894): Historia de un Proceso Discontinuo [Chilean Cultural Journals of the 19th Century (1842–1894): History of a Discontinuous Process], reconstruct the origins of the Chilean cultural field, while the recent book by Antonia Viu, Materialidades de lo Impreso: Revistas Latinoamericanas, 1910–1956 [Materialities of the printed: Latinoamerican Journals, 1910–1956], reviews some Chilean periodicals in a Latin American context together with a broad discussion on the materiality of printed publications from current mediations, which entails the thinking of journals from a present activity and a certain actuality and not simply considered as collectible archeological apparatuses without current agency.63

In spite of the difficulties, more and more researchers are studying the periodicals to observe the ideas that permeated our present, and their aesthetic, literary, political, and cultural attempts that strayed in the face of certainty, as their understanding is essential to fostering new futures.

Further Reading

  • Alarcón Reyes, Justo, José Apablaza Guerra, and Miriam Guzmán Morales. Revistas culturales chilenas del siglo XX. Índice General. Santiago: Consejo Nacional de la Cultura y las Artes. Fondo Nacional de Fomento del libro y la lectura, 2006.
  • Bernaschina Schurmann, Vicente, and Paulina Soto Riveros. Crítica literaria y políticas culturales: Escritores, revistas literarias y compromiso social. Santiago: Fomento del Libro, 2011.
  • Bianchi, Soledad. “La Quinta rueda y PEC: dos miradas a la cultura. Chile, años '60.” In La cultura de un siglo: América Latina en sus revistas. Edited by Saúl Sosnowski, 469–478. Buenos Aires: Alianza Editorial, 1999.
  • Bianchi, Soledad. Errancias, atisbos, preguntas: Cultura y memoria, postdictadura y modernidad en Chile. College Park: Latin American Studies Center, 2001.
  • Brito, Eugenia. Campos minados (Literatura post-golpe en Chile). Santiago: Cuarto Propio, 1990.
  • Canto Novoa, Nadinne. “El lugar de la cultura en la vía chilena al socialismo. Notas sobre el proyecto estético de la Unidad Popular.” Revista Pléyade 9 (2012): 153–178.
  • Castillo de Berchenko, Adriana. “La expresión de una voluntad rupturista: el discurso de La Castaña y El Organillo, revistas chilenas de los 80.” America 15, no. 1 (1996): 337–346.
  • Cristi, Nicole, and Javiera Manzi. Resistencia gráfica. Dicatura en Chile: APJ - TallerSol. Santiago: LOM ediciones, 2016.
  • Cucurella, Paula. “A Weak Force: On the Chilean Dictatorship and Visual Arts.” The New Centennial Review 14, no. 1 (2014): 99–127.
  • Errázuriz, Luis Hernán. “Dictadura militar en Chile: Antecedentes del golpe estético-cultural.” Latin American Research Review 44, no. 2 (2009): 136–157.
  • Gilman, Claudia. “Las revistas y los límites de lo decible: cartografía de una época.” La cultura de un siglo: América Latina en sus revistas. Edited by Saúl Sosnowski, 461–468. Buenos Aires: Alianza Editorial, 1999.
  • Lihn, Enrique et al. La cultura en la vía chilena al socialismo. Santiago: Editorial Universitaria, 1971.
  • Moraña, Mabel. “Revistas culturales y mediación letrada en América Latina.” Travessia 40 (2003): 67–74.
  • Pita González, Alexandra, and María del Carmen Grillo. “Una propuesta de análisis para el estudio de revistas culturales.” RELMECS 5, no. 1 (2015): 1–30.
  • Retamal Ávila, Julio, and Sergio Villalobos R. Bibliografía histórica chilena: revistas chilenas 1843–1978. Santiago: Dirección de Bibliotecas, Archivos y Museos, 1993.
  • Santa Cruz, Eduardo. Prensa y sociedad en Chile, siglo XX. Santiago: Editorial Universitaria, 2014.
  • Sepúlveda Contreras, Manuel, Jorge Montealegre Iturra, and Rafael Chavarría Contreras. ¿Apagón cultural? El libro bajo dictadura. Santiago de Chile: Editorial Asterión, 2017.
  • Subercaseaux, Bernardo. Historia del libro en Chile: Desde la Colonia hasta el Bicentenario. 1993. Santiago: LOM Ediciones, 2010.
  • Zamorano, César. “La revista Cormorán y su contribución al debate en torno a la cultura en la Unidad Popular.” Izquierdas 30 (2016): 215–235.

Notes

  • 1. See Soledad Bianchi, La memoria: modelo para armar (Santiago, Chile: Ediciones de la Dirección de Bibliotecas, Archivos y Museos, 1995). All translations from Spanish are mine.

  • 2. Pierre Bourdieu, Campo de poder, campo intelectual (Buenos Aires, Argentina: Editorial Montressor, [1966] 2002), 10.

  • 3. Beatriz Sarlo, “Intelectuales y revistas: razones de una práctica,” América: Cahiers du CRICCAL; Le Discours Culturel dans les Revues Latino-Américaines (1940–1970) 9–10 (1992): 15.

  • 4. Jorge Schwartz and Roxana Patiño, “Introducción,” Revista Iberoamericana 70, no. 208–209 (2004): 647.

  • 5. Fernanda Beigel, “Las revistas culturales como documentos de la historia latinoamericana,” Utopía y Praxis Latinoamericana: Revista Internacional de Filosofía Iberoamericana y Teoría Social 8, no. 20 (2003): 106; and Beigel, “Las revistas culturales,” 108.

  • 6. Claudia Gilman, Entre la pluma y el fusil: debates y dilemas del escritor revolucionario en América Latina (Buenos Aires, Argentina: Siglo Veintiuno Editores, 2003), 462.

  • 7. Beigel, “Las revistas culturales,” 110.

  • 8. Pablo Rocca, “Por qué, para qué una revista (sobre su naturaleza y su función en el campo cultural Latinoamericano),” Hispamérica 33, no. 99 (Diciembre 2004): 5.

  • 9. Rocca, “Por qué, para qué una revista,” 3.

  • 10. Jacques Rancière, El reparto de lo sensible (Santiago, Chile: LOM Ediciones, 2009), 12.

  • 11. Geraldine Rogers, “Presentación: publicaciones periódicas del siglo XX: aspectos emergentes, miradas latinoamericanas,” Catedral Tomada: Revista de Crítica Literaria Latinoamericana 6, no. 11 (2019): 7.

  • 12. Francois Dosse, La marcha de las ideas: historia de los intelectuales, historia intelectual (Valencia, Spain: Universitat de València, 2006), 47.

  • 13. Eduardo Vassallo, “Notas para un prólogo a la cultura en la Unidad Popular,” in La cultura con Allende, Tomo I: 1970–71, ed. Eduardo Vassallo and Gonzalo Contreras (Santiago, Chile: Ediciones Alterables, 2014), 17.

  • 14. “Editorial,” Cormorán, no. 1 (Agosto 1969): 2.

  • 15. Taller de escritores de la Unidad Popular, “Por la creación de una cultura nacional y popular,” Cormorán, no. 8 (1970): 7–8.

  • 16. Enrique Lihn, “Balmes,” Cormorán, no. 7 (1970): 15.

  • 17. “Editorial,” Nueva Atenea, no. 423 (1970): 1

  • 18. “Editorial,” Nueva Atenea, no. 423 (1970): 1.

  • 19. “Editorial,” Nueva Atenea, no. 424 (1970): 1.

  • 20. “Editorial,” Nueva Atenea, no. 424 (1970): 2.

  • 21. “Editorial,” Nueva Atenea, no. 424 (1970): 1.

  • 22. Jorge Teillier, “Sobre el mundo donde verdaderamente habito,” Aisthesis, no. 5 (1970): 281.

  • 23. Gaspar Galaz, “La fuerza social del arte,” Aisthesis, no. 6 (1971): 29.

  • 24. Galaz, “ La fuerza social del arte,” 38.

  • 25. Tebaida, no. 3–4 (1970): 46.

  • 26. Andrés Sabella, “Poesía y justicia,” Tebaida, no. 5 (1971): 22–24.

  • 27. Augusto Roa Bastos, “Latinoamérica, continente novelesco,” Taller de Letras, no. 1 (1971): 4.

  • 28. Roa Bastos, “ Latinoamérica,” 6.

  • 29. Roa Bastos, “ Latinoamérica,” 7.

  • 30. Josefina Lira, “Vocación de intelectual a través del estudio de los Cuadernos de la Realidad National,” América: Cahiers du CRICCAL; Le Discours Culturel dans les Revues Latino-Américaines (1940–1970), no. 9–10 (1992): 332.

  • 31. Hernán Valdés, “¿Prudencia o desorientación para formular las bases de una política cultural?,” Cuadernos de la Realidad Nacional, no. 8 (1971): 259.

  • 32. Valdés, “¿Prudencia o desorientación,” 263.

  • 33. Carlos Maldonado, “El proceso cultural como incentivador de la praxis,” Cuadernos de la Realidad Nacional, no. 12 (1972): 76.

  • 34. Hilda López, Un sueño llamado Quimantú (Santiago, Chile: Ceibo Ediciones, 2014), 27.

  • 35. López, Un sueño llamado Quimantú, 18.

  • 36. “Planteamientos,” La Quinta Rueda, no. 2 (1972): 8.

  • 37. Carlos Maldonado and Lucho Abarca, “¿Dónde está la política cultural? Teoría. . . y práctica,” La Quinta Rueda, no. 1 (Octubre 1972): 12.

  • 38. “Planteamientos,” La Quinta Rueda, no. 2 (1972): 8.

  • 39. Mariano Aguirre, “8 escritores frente a la realidad,” La Quinta Rueda, no. 2 (1972): 5.

  • 40. César Albornóz, “La cultura en la Unidad Popular: porque esta vez no se trata de cambiar un presidente,” in Cuando hicimos historia: la experiencia de la Unidad Popular, ed. Julio Pinto Vallejos (Santiago, Chile: LOM Ediciones, 2005), 159.

  • 41. Luis Cárcamo-Huechante, Tramas del mercado: imaginación económica, cultura pública y literatura en el chile de fines del siglo veinte (Santiago, Chile: Cuarto Propio, 2007), 17.

  • 42. Horacio Eloy, Revistas y publicaciones literarias en dictadura (1973–1990) (Santiago, Chile: Diez Ediciones, 2014), 12.

  • 43. Geraldine Rogers, “Las publicaciones periódicas como dispositivos de exposición,” in Revistas, archivo y exposición: publicaciones periódicas argentinas del siglo XX, ed. Geraldine Rogers and Verónica Delgado (La Plata, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias de la Educación, 2019), 11–27.

  • 44. Eloy, Revistas y publicaciones, 11.

  • 45. Nicolás Folch Maass, “Dos poetas penquistas: Carlos Cociñas y Tomás Harris,” Atenea, no. 506 (2012): 203.

  • 46. Back cover, Envés, no. 4 (1985).

  • 47. Omar Lara, “¿Uno o diecisite?,” Trilce, no. 17 (1982): 3.

  • 48. Ronald Kay, “Rewriting,” Manuscritos, no. 1 (1975): 25–32.

  • 49. “La Dirección,” CAL, no. 1 (1979): 2.

  • 50. Jorge Montealegre, “Algunas notas (autocomplacientes y hasta nostálgicas) sobre La Castaña,” Revista de Crítica Cultural, no. 31 (2005): 16.

  • 51. Montealegre, “Algunas notas,” 17.

  • 52. Eloy, Revistas y publicaciones, 105.

  • 53. “La poesía,” La Gota Pura, no. 7 (1983): 2.

  • 54. Miguel Vicuña, “Número quebrado,” Número Quebrado, no. 2 (1989): 2.

  • 55. See Saúl Sosnowski, ed., La cultura de un siglo: América Latina en sus revistas (Buenos Aires, Argentina: Alianza Editorial, 1999).

  • 56. Lydia Elizalde, ed., Revistas culturales latinoamericanas, 1920–1960 (México: Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Juan Pablos Editor, 2008); Lydia Elizalde, ed., Revistas culturales latinoamericanas, 1960–2008 (México: Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Juan Pablos Editor, 2010); and César Zamorano Díaz, ed., Escrituras en tránsito: revistas y redes culturales en América Latina (Santiago, Chile: Editorial Cuarto, 2018).

  • 57. Hanno Ehrlicher and Nanette Rißler-Pipka, Almacenes de un tiempo en fuga: revistas culturales en la modernidad hispánica (Aachen, Germany: Shaker, 2014). The book can be downloaded at Revistas-Culturales.

  • 58. Alexandra Pita González and María del Carmen Grillo, “Una propuesta de análisis para el estudio de revistas culturales,” Revista Latinoamericana de Metodología de las Ciencias Sociales 5, no. 1 (2015): 1–31.

  • 59. Beigel, “Las revistas culturales”; and Sarlo, “Intelectuales y revistas.”

  • 60. Horacio Tarcus, Las revistas culturales latinoamericanas: giro material, tramas intelectuales y redes revisteriles (Temperley, Argentina: Tren en Movimiento, 2020).

  • 61. Claudio Maíz and Ramiro Zó, eds., “Episodes of Latin American Literary History from Intellectual Networks and Archives,” Palimpsesto 10, no. 17 (2020): 1–220.

  • 62. Geraldine Rogers and César Zamorano, eds., “Periodicals and cultural networks in Latin America,” Catedral Tomada: Revista de Crítica Literaria Latinoamericana 6, no. 11 (2018): 1–312.

  • 63. Gonzalo Montero and Verónica Méndez, eds., Revista Los Diez (1916–1917) (Santiago, Chile: Editorial Cuarto, 2011); Gonzalo Montero, ed., Revista de Artes y Letras (1918) (Santiago, Chile: Editorial Cuarto, 2016); Marina Alvarado Cornejo, Revistas culturales y literarias chilenas de 1900 a 1920: legitimadores del campo literario nacional (Santiago, Chile: Editorial Cuarto, 2016); Marina Alvarado Cornejo, Revistas culturales chilenas del siglo XIX (1842–1894): Historia de un proceso discontinuo (Santiago, Chile: Ediciones UCSH, 2015); and Antonia Viu, Materialidades de lo impreso: revistas latinoamericanas, 1910–1956 (Santiago, Chile: Metales Pesados, 2019).