Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM the OXFORD RESEARCH ENCYCLOPEDIA, LITERATURE ( (c) Oxford University Press USA, 2019. All Rights Reserved. Personal use only; commercial use is strictly prohibited (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 20 October 2019

New York School of Poets

John Ashbery, Barbara Guest, Kenneth Koch, Frank O'Hara, and James Schuyler are among the leading New York School poets. Each wrote art criticism, plays, novels, and poetry in New York City during the late 1940s, 1950s, and early 1960s. Like the New York School of abstract expressionist painters for which the group of poets is named, the movement has proceeded in first, second, and third generations. The poets read and were influenced aesthetically by earlier art movement poetry such as dada and surrealist poetry. Their writing is abstract and informal. The poets have written in collaboration with each other and with visual artists. They have written long poems, encompassed art criticism in their poetry, and embraced pop culture as a subject. They have also been influential teachers of poetry.


The first generation of New York School painters, including Lee Krasner, Jackson Pollock, and Willem and Elaine de Kooning, began using the canvas as a field, employing aleatory techniques (those inviting chance, including paint dripping), and incorporating jazz-inspired improvisation in the late 1930s. Some of the painters were students of Hans Hoffman; others worked for Krasner as mural painters for the Works Progress Administration. The name “New York School” or “School of New York” is a reference to the nonacademic painters of the School of Paris, a group that included Chaim Soutine. The de Koonings went on to teach at Black Mountain College with Robert Creeley, a non-New York School poet who has collaborated with visual artists. The second generation of New York School painters includes Fairfield Porter, Philip Guston, Robert Rauschenberg, Jane Freilicher, Helen Frankenthaler, and Larry Rivers. In general, while these painters were affected by the gestural abstraction of the earlier group, their work was more representational and the objects or scenes they represented were ambiguous, supporting more than one signification. They painted abstract portraits and landscapes and infused their paintings with found objects and references to pop culture before pop art.

The New York School of Poets is more of a coterie than a school, although many of the poets teach or have taught at, and most have attended, the same Ivy League institutions. The group incorporates overlapping clusters of friends and acquaintances. Like the West Coast School, the New York School is built around a coterie of homosexual men, and though women are associated with the New York School, the definition of the group according to all-male institutions and bars such as the San Remo and the Cedar has led many critics to ignore these female artists. While many academics have defined New York School poets as nonacademic, most of the writers in the second and third generation of New York School poets were students of other New York School poets in a college setting. Of course, many non-New York School poets, including John Yau, Ralph Angel, and the New York language poets Charles Bernstein and Bruce Andrews, were also students of New York School poets. John Tranter, an Australian poet who edits JACKET, an online journal, is in many ways a true New York School poet of the second generation, although he is outside the circles of acquaintance.

The first generation of New York School poets was drawn to minimalist form and sought to capture “life as it happens,” including coincidences and random events. They incorporated references to and images from high and low culture in their work. The group was named by John Bernard Myers, director of the Tibor de Nagy Gallery and editor of the anthology The Poets of the New York School (1969).

Ashbery and O'Hara met through Ashbery's editorship of the Harvard Advocate after Koch graduated from Harvard and moved to New York City. Other writers attending Harvard immediately after World War II include Adrienne Rich, Robert Bly, and Alison Lurie. Barbara Guest met Ashbery and O'Hara through Semi-Colon, the magazine published by the Tibor de Nagy Gallery in New York City. James Schuyler was briefly a New York City roommate of O'Hara's.

Michael Brownstein, Sotere Torregian, and others in the second generation of New York School poets learned from the urban romanticism and informality of the first generation of poets. They deliberately set out to associate with the first-generation New York School poets. Like the preceding generation, they were interested in coterie poetry rather than official verse and collaborated with each other and with visual artists. The second generation helped found poetry institutions nationally and in New York City.

Tom Clark eventually served as poetry editor of The Paris Review. Ron Padgett and David Shapiro edited the 1970 anthology An Anthology of New York Poets, which was illustrated by Joe Brainard, and which infamously excluded all but one female New York School poet, Bernadette Mayer. Padgett has enjoyed a long career at Teachers & Writers, another New York poetry institution.


John Myers's companion, Herbert Machiz, director of the Artists Theatre, matched painters creating stage sets with poets writing plays. In his introduction to his 1960 poetry anthology The New American Poetry, Donald Allen cited work with theater groups as a connection among the New York poets. O'Hara and Larry Rivers, Schuyler and Elaine de Kooning, Koch and Grace Hartigan, Ashbery and Nellie Blaine, Guest and Jane Freilicher, and James Merrill and Al Kress wrote and designed plays for Machiz at the Artists Theatre. While Merrill, whose use of form and meter was influenced by W. H. Auden, is a mainstream poet, Merrill and Auden both had relationships with the Tibor de Nagy Gallery and with the poets of the New York School. Merrill's long poem, The Changing Light at Sandover, partially written by chance and collaboration via Ouija board, is comparable to long poems written by the New York School poets. Schuyler was briefly Auden's secretary. Auden chose Ashbery's manuscript Some Trees (1956) for the Yale Series of Younger Poets over a manuscript by Frank O'Hara. Auden taught occasionally at Columbia University, while Koch enjoyed a long career there.

The first-generation poets collaborated with the second-generation painters to produce mixed media art. Guest, Schuyler, Ashbery, and O'Hara all wrote criticism of the first generation's works at ARTNews. Ted Berrigan, a poet of the second generation, wrote reviews for ARTNews before John Ashbery returned to the United States from France and became its executive editor. O'Hara and Schuyler both worked for the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA). Eventually, O'Hara became a MoMA curator. He collaborated closely with saxophonist-turned-painter Larry Rivers on projects that included A City in Winter (1952), O'Hara's first book and the first book published by the Tibor de Nagy Gallery. O'Hara wrote poems that were about paintings by Michael Goldberg and Norman Bluhm and that accompanied their print series. He also modeled for paintings by Rivers, Porter, Alice Neel, and Grace Hartigan, among others. In the latter part of his career, Rivers began writing and publishing. O'Hara collaborated with second-generation poet and painter Joe Brainard. Kenneth Koch collaborated with other poets and with painters; in fact, he was primarily interested in collaborations, not in working as an individual, in the 1950s. Schuyler lived with painter Fairfield Porter and his family for many years. Consequently, Porter painted many portraits of Schuyler.

Edwin Denby became famous for his dance criticism but also wrote New York School poetry and was one of the influences upon both Frank O'Hara and Ted Berrigan. Denby was slightly older than the first generation of poets and more closely acquainted with the first generation of painters than with the second. The Tibor de Nagy Gallery, which represents many abstract expressionist painters, still exhibits collaborations between the groups and publishes poetry.

In the late 1960s Ted Berrigan, a second-generation New York School poet, sold enrollments in the “school” for five dollars. Whether the New York School of poets is a school or coterie and whether the generations form a lineage or not is an active debate. Anthologies, relationships, and similarities in style, approach, and content define the group. The work has a relationship to visual art and criticism of visual art that goes beyond mere collaboration with visual artists. Critics do not always include essential writers of the New York School in the core group when listing New York School writers. Edward Field's poems, which share approach and content (such as monster movies) with other New York School poems, are in the New York section of Allen's The New American Poetry. This is the volume that first divided postmodern poets into the New York, San Francisco Renaissance, Black Mountain, and Beat groups. John Myers includes Kenward Elmslie in his anthology, although Elmslie, whose work engages sound and performance in a unique way, and who has written many librettos for theater works converted into operas, claims he is a friend, not a member, of the New York School. Harry Mathews met Ashbery in France and edited a journal with him. Furthermore, his work has appeared in several of the New York School anthologies. Still, he is better known as the American member of OuLiPo, the Organization of Potential Literature, an offshoot of 'pataphysics, than as a New York School poet.

OuLiPo, like the New York School poetic, has roots in surrealist game playing. Its member mathematicians and writers, including Italo Calvino and Georges Perec, are devoted to applying algorithms and other constraints to produce writing shaped by rule rather than chance. New York School poets have used collage or cut-ups, found poetry, and aleatory techniques in addition to directly collaborative processes. Kenneth Koch's poem ideas are closely related to conceptual poetry. Bernadette Mayer's influential poetry exercises are related both to Louis Zukofsky's phonetic translations of Catullus and to Koch's poem ideas. They carry Koch's concepts further into an investigation of language itself and a consideration of language as experience and poem content; her exercises were anthologized by the New York language poets.

LeRoi Jones, later Amiri Baraka, and Diane di Prima were associated with several postmodern poetry groups through editing and through the American Poet's Theatre. He is written into several New York School poems and published its writers early in their careers. Charles North, together with Schuyler, edited two anthologies of poetry by first- and second-generation New York School poets and sketches by New York School painters, including Red Coombs.

Some second-generation poets were associated directly with the older poets. Eileen Myles assisted Schuyler. David Lehman, Ron Padgett, and David Shapiro were Koch's students at Columbia University, then an all-male institution. Joseph Ceravolo, Bernadette Mayer, and Bill Berkson were Koch's students at The New School for Social Research. Others participated in the network of magazines, independent presses, anthologies, and gallery readings that gave life to New York School poetry. Sun Press published early poetry by Ron Padgett, Peter Schjeldahl, Jaimy Gordon, and Philip Lopate. Maureen Owen edited and published Telephone magazine and Telephone Books; the titles recall O'Hara's comparison of a poem to a phone call. Lew Warsh and Anne Waldman edited the magazine Angel Hair, which became United Artists magazine and press, still publishing early in the twenty-first century. Anne Lauterbach's experimental poetry is New York School–inflected. Anne Waldman's work is performative and Beat-influenced in addition to being influenced by the New York School. Inclusion in anthologies and personal acquaintances link poets Clark Coolidge and Diane Ward with the New York School, although these poets are also closely associated with language poetry. Douglas Messerli, through his Los Angeles-based Sun and Moon Press and Green Integer Books, has published works by most of the New York School writers.

Second-generation poets Tom Clark, Bill Berkson, and Louis MacAdams relocated to the West Coast in the early 1970s and had both supportive or contentious relationships to the West Coast School poets. Anne Waldman, Lew Welch, and Ted Berrigan attended the 1965 Berkeley Poetry Conference, also attended by O'Hara. They associated with the poets and institutions supportive of the younger West Coast School writers and with the western language poets.

By the early 1970s, Clark Coolidge had moved to the Berkshires, and others closely associated with the group had moved from New York City. Ted Berrigan, through his teaching at Iowa and Yale in particular, would meet Barrett Watten, Robert Grenier, Kit Robinson, and Alice Notley. They would become interested in carrying the postmodernism of poem surfaces and language manipulation itself further through language-centered writing.

The third generation of New York School poets includes students or teachers at Columbia University, The New School for Social Research, the Teachers and Writers Collaborative, the Poetry Project at St. Marks's Church, Bard College, Brooklyn College of the City University of New York, and Naropa University in Boulder, Colorado. Many of these poets opted in by poetics or relationship. Anselm Berrigan and Edmund Berrigan, third-generation New York School poets, were sons of Ted Berrigan and Alice Notley. Lee Ann Brown and Lisa Jarnot studied with Mayer at the Poetry Project. Jordan Davis studied with Koch at Columbia.

O'Hara's death in 1966 ended the first period of New York School poetry. The second period stretched from the anthologies of 1969 and 1970, which published second-generation poets alongside first-generation poets, to Ted Berrigan's death in 1983. The third period ended with the publication of David Lehman's book, The Last Avant-Garde, in 1998. Both Koch and Rivers died in 2002. Ashbery and Guest were still writing as of then, collaborating with artists and reading, but their styles had been diverging from the styles of the New York School toward abstraction. The praxis and aesthetics of the New York School poetry now have a strong influence on many young poets.


New York School poetics rejects many traditional forms and rejects mythology as content or model. While Guest has described all poetries as confessional, the confession and narration of the New York School poetry is not confrontational, as in the poetry of Robert Lowell, Sylvia Plath, or Anne Sexton. The poetry is dramatic but does not enact psychological drama. The abstract, intellectual poems written in plain American idiom place a value on pleasure and aesthetics. The poems are expressive: they clearly and carefully capture emotional states. The surface of the poems is elusive and allusive. The words delineate gestures and juxtapose ideas of different textures, evocative misunderstandings, and everyday events. O'Hara's poems about his urban environment, which he described as “I do this, I do that,” form an autobiography. Ashbery's are allegorical in a mysterious way. Schuyler wrote intimate still lives.

Campy, ambiguous, and jazzed, this poetry is irreligious and not programmatically moral and political. During their New York period, Beats Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsberg, and Gregory Corso were acquainted with the New York School poets, but New York School poets do not witness or espouse religious or political positions in poems, as do most Beat poets. While Kenneth Rexroth, Robert Lowell, and William Everson were conscientious objectors during World War II, Schuyler, O'Hara, and Koch were veterans of World War II who attended college on the GI Bill. Ted Berrigan was a veteran of the Korean War who also went to college on the GI Bill. O'Hara was homosexual both on the page and in person before the Stonewall Riot of 1969. The New York poets were liberal during the McCarthy era of the 1950s and were acquainted with the New York City intellectuals who founded the New York Review of Books in the early 1960s. Guest served as poetry editor for the leftist cultural publication Partisan Review.

Ashbery and Koch did academic work about and translated idiosyncratic presurrealist French writers Lautréamont (Isidore Ducasse), Raymond Roussel, and Pierre Reverdy. Ashbery and Mathews edited a journal they titled Locus Solus after one of Roussel's works. The poets found Russian poets Vladimir Mayakovsky and Boris Pasternak more congenial than poets and poetry receiving the approval of the New Critics in the postwar period. New York School poetry has the urbanity of Guillaume Appolinaire and the urban imagist landscape of Kay Boyle rather than the poetry of place or politics of the Fugitives. The poems are not written in order to adhere to a preceding standard or tradition. They are exploratory.

Each New York School poet and his poems display some but not all of the characteristics of New York School poets and poetry. Ashbery's work is polyvocal and allegorical. Guest's work is discontinuous and epitomizes the abstract lyric. Its lyrical beauty relates to the sense of the marvelous found in baroque poetry. She includes H. D. (Hilda Doolittle) in her influences and is more concerned with the self in history than the other poets. Schuyler did not complete a degree and began publishing poetry late in life. He writes about landscape, alternating a long-lined Whitmanian sweep and short-lined imagistic quality. Koch was a teacher and academic who, among other things, wrote parodies of academic verse, frequently using forms such as Byron's ottava rima or simplifications of Ariosto's baroque conceits. O'Hara had a career in art curation, specializing in abstract expressionism, and published monographs on Jackson Pollock, among others.

The poets do not typically rely on the forms and meanings of traditional verse. Instead, their poetry includes references to the theories, techniques, and thoughts used to write the poems, within the text. More poems than not are ars poetica, bildungsroman, process- or project-based (conceptual), or phenomenological in nature. The poets have contributed to contemporary long poetry, comic poetry, art criticism, unofficial verse culture, the teaching of poetry writing, and poetics.

Among the second generation, Ted Berrigan's first major work, The Sonnets (1964), was a collaged and cut-up sonnet sequence, where each line was discrete in an important way. Eileen Myles became better known for her fiction and autobiographical writing than for her poetry, as did Philip Lopate. Ron Padgett has published many translations from the French, including Reverdy's poetry, and he has edited many anthologies and books, including Edwin Denby's poems.

While John Ashbery is perhaps the New York School poet who has received the most accolades, Frank O'Hara was considered to be the center of the group during his lifetime. The group has always pointed out their friendship as well as the differences in their poetics.

Three Poets: Guest, Schuyler, and Berrigan

While a member of the New York School of Poets, Barbara Guest has also written the biography Herself Defined: The Poet H. D. and Her World (1984), as well as fiction, plays, criticism and poetry. She traces her influence from imagism through H. D.'s later works, including Trilogy (1973). Like the other members of the New York School, she was influenced earlier in her career by Russian poets, although more by Anna Ahkmatova than by Boris Pasternak She has not been as prolific a poet as O'Hara, Koch, or Ashbery, but her writing is at once more various and more condensed. She was associate editor of ARTNews from 1951 to 1954. Like the other first-generation New York School poets, she published poetry, and wrote and produced plays in the 1950s. Her first volume, however, was not published until the early 1960s. She left Manhattan for Long Island in New York State and then Berkeley, California.

Guest has continued to collaborate with young artists. Her work is more strikingly visual, while not imagistic, than the poetry of the other writers. She makes less use of pop cultural references and emotion than do the other writers.

James Schuyler's mental illness resulted in several psychotic episodes for which he was hospitalized. Despite this, he wrote two novels, in addition to the one in collaboration with John Ashbery, and plays, and he was published in New York School poetry anthologies and small journals for decades before his first full-length book was published in 1969. He did not give a public reading until 1988, three years before he died. He had especially close relationships with painters Darragh Park, his literary executor, and Fairfield Porter and Porter's family. Schuyler worked as a writer for ARTNews and worked briefly at MoMA.

His use of landscape and repetition recalls the imagists. Although they are not representative poets, some New York School poets are associated with imagist poets through a shared interest in the surface of the poem and in signs that reference more than one meaning, whether through allegory or pun.

Ted Berrigan was one of the leading second-generation New York School poets until his death in 1983. While at the University of Tulsa after his service in Korea, he met Ron Padgett, Joe Brainard, Dick Gallup, Tom Clark, and Maureen Owen. In 1960, when Ron Padgett was admitted to Columbia University, Berrigan and eventually the remainder of the group followed. In New York City they met Anne Waldman, Lew Welch, Bernadette Mayer, Clark Coolidge, and other St. Mark's Place denizens. Padgett and Berrigan edited the influential mimeographed zine C. While his second wife, Alice Notley, attended Barnard, Berrigan did not meet Notley until he taught at the Iowa Writer's Workshop, where Notley earned a master of fine arts degree in fiction in 1969.

Berrigan's best-known work is his first book, The Sonnets, first published in 1964. Under the influence of Auden and like many of the first-generation poets who were also influenced by Auden in this regard, Berrigan used the names of friends to make his poems direct and intimate. His collaborators included the artists George Schneeman and Joe Brainard.

Art Criticism

Many of the poets, accustomed to interpreting art and familiar with the futurist manifesto and the various surrealist manifestos, have written poetics statements. Others, including Ashbery, have avoided making such statements about their own work although they write about other poetry, particularly about writings of the other New York School poets. Frank O'Hara wrote two notable poetics statements in 1959: Personism: A Manifesto and a statement published in The New American Poetry anthology. Personism: A Manifesto was reprinted in the introduction to An Anthology of New York Poets (1970) and elsewhere. In it, O'Hara claims that his poetics and opinions are in his poems, not in the manifesto, which was written as a self-assignment. It is the “opposite” of Charles Olson's “Projective Verse” essay. That is, O'Hara writes statements that directly contradict or pun on Olson's statements. Around the same time the West Coast poet Jack Spicer compared a poet to a radio that received and broadcast poems, meaning, that is, that the poet did not necessarily understand his poetry. O'Hara compared a poem to a telephone conversation between two people.

Schuyler mentions the influence on his work of the dominant art, painting, and of the anthology of dada poets and painters edited by painter Robert Motherwell (The Dada Painters and Poets, 1951) in his poetics statements. Koch's later poetry, including Days and Nights and Circus II, and his introductions to anthologies are poetics statements. Barbara Guest has written both film criticism and poetry criticism in poetry. Many critics consider John Ashbery's poetry to be primarily about the writing of poetry. Among the second generation of poets, Peter Schjeldahl, Marjorie Welish, Bill Berkson, David Shapiro, and John Perreault have written art criticism.

Long Poems

Most New York School poets have written long poems. Schuyler's The Morning of the Poem is possibly the most important New York School long poem because it typifies many of the characteristics of the school's poetry, including naturalness (not naturalism), discovered structure, and engagement with landscape and thought rather than place. Schuyler wrote two novels, What's for Dinner? (1978) and Alfred and Guinivere (2001). In collaboration with John Ashbery, he wrote A Nest of Ninnies (1969). Ashbery has written many long and book-length poems, including Flow Chart (1991), A Wave, and Girls on the Run (1999). O'Hara's Second Avenue (1960) and “Ode to Michael Goldberg('s Birth and Other Births)” are long poems investigating the applicability of surreal imagery and liberation from the left margin. Koch's Ko; or, A Season on Earth (1960) is a book-length poem. The Duplications is his longest poem.

Alice Notley wrote the book-length poem Descent of Alette (1996) and the long series Disobedience (2001), which explore a female nonheroic epic. Bernadette Mayer's book-length poem, Midwinter Day (1982), was written on a single day. David Lehman has written two book-length sequences, The Daily Mirror (2000) and The Evening Sun (2002), which collect the daily poem he has written since 1996. Barbara Guest's Seeking Air (1978) is a novel as postcubist collage. Koch wrote a novel, The Red Robins (1975), which was later produced as a play, and the book One Thousand Avant Garde Plays (1988).

Koch's sound-based long poem, When the Sun Tries to Go On, was an exercise in lyric extension suggested by O'Hara. The imagery in O'Hara's Second Avenue is surreal and liberated from the left margin. Europe, Ashbery's first long poem, collaged text from a World War I book for teenage girls called Beryl of the Biplane (1917). Later, he titled a book Girls on the Run (1999) after a collage book written by the outsider artist Henry Darger. Repetition of details loosely inspired by canzone forms is what structures Schuyler's The Morning of the Poem. Other New York School long poems use diaries, telephone conversations, letters, and more recently e-mails and customer satisfaction survey cards as forms. Many of the poems' forms are discovered during the writing process. Joe Brainard's collection I Remember (2001) began with a self-imposed assignment to write a number of lines that began with the title words. The assignment has since become a popular one in poetry workshops. The New York School long poem compares to the large canvas of the abstract expressionist painters.

Humor and Genres

There is a continuing debate about the extent to which comic poetry and occasional verse are light verse. Some of O'Hara's and Koch's poetry is light verse. More of it is truly funny or has a sublimely light sound, form, and tone. O'Hara's Ode to Michael Goldberg('s Birth and Other Births) is a birthday poem. His book Lunch Poems (1964), published in Lawrence Ferlinghetti's City Lights Press Pocket Poets Series, contains occasional poems written in midtown Manhattan. O'Hara's The Day Lady Died, written for Billie Holiday, is elegiac but not particularly solemn. It closes with a memory. The last phrase, mentioning “breath,” converts the poem to a consideration of the death of the lyric, breath in poetry, and occasion or elegy itself. Ted Berrigan wrote a great deal of occasional verse for funerals, weddings, and birthdays. Koch's history of collaboration and postsurrealist game playing sharpens the satiric early poem Fresh Air. His later odes to intangibles surpass his self-imposed assignment to make a postmodern contribution to the ode. Even his serious poems are ironic in tone. Ashbery embraces culture high and low. In these ways, this postmodern poetry differs from anecdotal poetry and light verse. New York School poems refer to cartoon characters, children's books, friends, and celebrities but reject accepted modes of writing to expand the possibilities of urban verse, anticipating pop art and the era of post-Marxist cultural studies.

Education and Exercises

While generally considered nonacademic or avant-garde poets, New York School poets were formally educated at competitive schools, and many of them have been teachers of writing. Kenneth Koch is widely recognized for his books teaching children, the elderly, and general readers how to read and write poetry. John Ashbery has been professor at Brooklyn College and then at Bard. Second-generation New York School poets formed the “nonacademic” academies that educated the third generation. For example, Anne Waldman was a director of The Jack Kerouac School of Disembodied Poetics at Naropa that Allen Ginsberg helped found. She was also an early codirector of the St. Mark's Poetry Project.

Koch's focus on exercises to teach writing and produce poetry has had a lasting effect in the academy across schools of poetry. The OuLiPo constraints used by Harry Mathews also influence classroom pedagogy. Ron Padgett has written books for teaching forms. Bernadette Mayer's experiments for poems are anthologized in The L = A = N = G = U = A = G = E Book, edited by Bruce Andrews and Charles Bernstein, and her resulting poems have been included in Ron Silliman's anthology of experimental poetry, In the American Tree (1986). Conceptual poetry, poetry written according to constraints, and poetry exercises relate to the new forms used by experimental poets.

While mainstream anthologies through the 1970s ignored their work, anthologies have been key to the recognition of New York School poets. At the start of the twenty-first century, major presses such as Sun and Moon, New Directions, Farrar, Strauss and Giroux, Random House, and Penguin, along with publications including Poetry, The New Yorker, and American Poetry Review, publish New York School writing, as does the series of annual Best American Poetry anthologies edited by David Lehman. The poetry has become popular with readers who find its style, humor, and virtuoso free-verse technique a welcome relief from more stultifying verse. Experimental poets enjoy the difficult aspects of this poet's poetry. The poetry challenges critics, poets, and readers who seek engagement through a tradition or canon rather than an individual experience of the world.

Further Reading

Allen, Donald M., ed. The New American Poetry. New York, 1960. Groundbreaking anthology.Find this resource:

Lehman, David. The Last Avant-Garde: The Making of the New York School of Poets. New York, 1998.Find this resource:

Messerli, Douglas, ed. From the Other Side of the Century: A New American Poetry, 1960–1990. Los Angeles, 1994. Interesting successor to The New American Poetry.Find this resource:

Myers, John Bernard, ed. The Poets of the New York School. Philadelphia, 1969. Anthology by the director of the Tibor de Nagy gallery.Find this resource:

Padgett, Ron, and David Shapiro, eds. An Anthology of New York Poets. New York, 1970.Find this resource:

Perloff, Marjorie. Frank O'Hara: Poet among Painters. New York, 1977.Find this resource: