Figure 5. Schematic mechanisms of GLOFs. Part (A) shows mechanism M1—dam overtopping; part (B) shows mechanism M2—dam failure (subtype incision and breaching; B); part (C) shows mechanism M2—dam failure (subtype direct rupture; R); and part (D) shows mechanism M2—dam failure (subtype piping and seepage; P). Direct rupture is a fast dynamic process, on the order of seconds to minutes, while piping and seepage are a gradual process, taking hours to days.