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Letter from the editor

The Neuroendocrinology of Empathy

"“Empathy” is an umbrella term for any type of process in which one is affected by the emotional state of others, and it is of great importance for daily social interaction. Empathic processes are thought to have evolved in the context of parental care to motivate caregivers to respond to helpless neonates’ needs, but over time may have been generalized outside the rearing context to make a wider social network and help shape social behaviors. ..." – By James Burkett  and Farzaneh Naghavi

The Regulation of Sleep


"The words “regulation” and “control” have different meanings. A rich literature exists on the control mechanisms of sleep—the genomic, molecular, cellular, and circuit processes responsible for arousal state changes and characteristics. The regulation of sleep refers to functions and homeostatic maintenance of those functions. Much less is known about sleep regulation than sleep control, largely because functions of sleep are still unknown. ..." – By Craig Heller

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