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date: 29 March 2023

Neuroendocrinology of Stress and Addictionlocked

Neuroendocrinology of Stress and Addictionlocked

  • Steven Kinsey, Steven KinseySchool of Nursing, University of Connecticut
  • Olivia Vanegas, Olivia VanegasUniversity of Connecticut, Behavioral Neuroscience
  • Kristen Trexler, Kristen TrexlerDepartment of Pyschology, West Virginia University
  • Floyd SteeleFloyd SteeleDepartment of Psychology, West Virginia University
  •  and Matthew EckardMatthew EckardDepartment of Psychology, West Virginia University


The stress response evolved as a series of neural and endocrine mechanisms that protect the host organism from threats to homeostasis. Repeated use of psychotropic drugs can lead to the development of tolerance (i.e., decreased drug activity at a given dose) and drug dependence, as indicated by withdrawal syndromes following drug abstinence. Drug withdrawal is often overtly stressful, although acute drug exposure may also represent a threat to homeostasis. This article explores the neuroendocrine effects of drugs of abuse and some of the ways in which stress and appetitive mechanisms interact.


  • Neuroendocrine and Autonomic Systems

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