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date: 27 March 2023

Predictive Coding Theories of Cortical Functionlocked

Predictive Coding Theories of Cortical Functionlocked

  • Rajesh P.N. RaoRajesh P.N. RaoUniversity of Washington
  •  and Linxing Preston JiangLinxing Preston JiangUniversity of Washington


Predictive coding is a unifying framework for understanding perception, action, and neocortical organization. In predictive coding, different areas of the neocortex implement a hierarchical generative model of the world that is learned from sensory inputs. Cortical circuits are hypothesized to perform Bayesian inference based on this generative model. Specifically, the Rao–Ballard hierarchical predictive coding model assumes that the top-down feedback connections from higher to lower order cortical areas convey predictions of lower-level activities. The bottom-up, feedforward connections in turn convey the errors between top-down predictions and actual activities. These errors are used to correct current estimates of the state of the world and generate new predictions. Through the objective of minimizing prediction errors, predictive coding provides a functional explanation for a wide range of neural responses and many aspects of brain organization.


  • Computational Neuroscience

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