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Leech Mechanosensation  

Brian D. Burrell

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
The medicinal leech (Hirudo verbana) is an annelid (segmented worm) and one of the classic model systems in neuroscience. It has been used in research for over 50 years and was one of the ... More

Rapid Adaptive Camouflage in Cephalopods  

Chuan-Chin Chiao and Roger T. Hanlon

Online publication date:
Dec 2019
Visual camouflage change is a hallmark of octopus, squid, and cuttlefish and serves as their primary defense against predators. They can change their total body appearance in less than a ... More

Sensing Polarized Light in Insects  

Thomas F. Mathejczyk and Mathias F. Wernet

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Evolution has produced vast morphological and behavioral diversity amongst insects, including very successful adaptations to a diverse range of ecological niches spanning the invasion of ... More

Stomatogastric Nervous System  

Wolfgang Stein

Online publication date:
Apr 2017
The crustacean stomatogastric nervous system contains a set of distinct but interacting rhythmic motor circuits that control movements of the foregut. When isolated, these circuits produce ... More

Stomatopod Vision  

Thomas W. Cronin, N. Justin Marshall, and Roy L. Caldwell

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
The predatory stomatopod crustaceans, or mantis shrimp, are among the most attractive and dynamic creatures living in the sea. Their special features include their powerful raptorial ... More

Urochordate Nervous Systems  

Kerrianne Ryan and Ian A. Meinertzhagen

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
Urochordates are chordate siblings that comprise the following marine invertebrates: the sessile Ascidiaceae, or sea squirts; planktonic Larvacea; and the pelagic salps, doliolids, and ... More

Xenacoelomorpha Nervous Systems  

Pedro Martínez, Volker Hartenstein, and Simon G. Sprecher

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
The emergence and diversification of bilateral animals are among the most important transitions in the history of life on our planet. A proper understanding of the evolutionary process will ... More

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