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Homeostatic Plasticity in the CNS  

Peter Wenner and Pernille Bülow

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Molecular and Cellular Systems
Homeostatic plasticity refers to a collection of mechanisms that function to homeostatically maintain some feature of neural function. The field began with the view that homeostatic ... More

Hormones and Animal Communication  

Eliot A. Brenowitz

Online publication date:
Dec 2019
Animals produce communication signals to attract mates and deter rivals during their breeding season. The coincidence in timing results from the modulation of signaling behavior and neural ... More

The Hypocretin Arousal Network  

Jeremy C. Borniger and Luis de Lecea

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
The hypocretins (also known as orexins) are selectively expressed in a subset of lateral hypothalamic neurons. Since the reports of their discovery in 1998, they have been intensely ... More

Hypothalamic Control of Female Reproduction  

Brian P. Kenealy and Ei Terasawa

Online publication date:
May 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Neuroendocrine and Autonomic Systems
Female reproduction is an interplay between the hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovaries. While the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neuron in the hypothalamus regulates gonadal function ... More

Inflammatory Signals and Sexual Differentiation of the Brain  

Margaret M. McCarthy

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Neuroendocrine and Autonomic Systems
Sex differences in the brain are established by the differential gonadal steroid hormonal milieu experienced by developing male and female fetuses and newborns. Androgen production by the ... More

Insect Navigation: Neural Basis to Behavior  

Stanley Heinze

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Navigation is the ability of animals to move through their environment in a planned manner. Different from directed but reflex-driven movements, it involves the comparison of ... More

Integration of Peripheral and Central Systems in Control of Ingestive and Reproductive Behavior  

Jill E. Schneider

Online publication date:
Jun 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Neuroendocrine and Autonomic Systems
During the evolution of animals, survival and reproduction depended upon mechanisms that maintained internal homeostasis in the face of environmental change. These environmental changes ... More

Invertebrate Nociception  

Nathaniel J. Himmel, Atit A. Patel, and Daniel N. Cox

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Invertebrate Neuroscience
Nociception is a protective mechanism that mediates behavioral responses to a range of potentially damaging stimuli, including noxious temperature, chemicals, and mechanical stimulation. ... More

Jellyfish Locomotion  

Richard Satterlie

Online publication date:
May 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Invertebrate Neuroscience
Two dichotomies exist within the swim systems of jellyfish—one centered on the mechanics of locomotion and the other on phylogenetic differences in nervous system organization. For example, ... More

Leech Behavioral Choice  

William B. Kristan Jr.

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Invertebrate Neuroscience
New techniques for recording the activity of many neurons simultaneously have given insights into how neuronal circuits make the decision to perform one of many possible behaviors. A ... More

Leech Mechanosensation  

Brian D. Burrell

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Invertebrate Neuroscience
The medicinal leech (Hirudo verbana) is an annelid (segmented worm) and one of the classic model systems in neuroscience. It has been used in research for over 50 years and was one of the ... More

Long-Term Potentiation and Long-Term Depression  

Arianna Maffei

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Molecular and Cellular Systems, Sensory Systems
Synaptic connections in the brain can change their strength in response to patterned activity. This ability of synapses is defined as synaptic plasticity. Long lasting forms of synaptic ... More

Mammalian Visual System Organization  

Farran Briggs

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Sensory Systems
Many mammals, including humans, rely primarily on vision to sense the environment. While a large proportion of the brain is devoted to vision in highly visual animals, there are not enough ... More

Maternal Behavior From a Neuroendocrine Perspective  

Danielle S. Stolzenberg, Kimberly L. Hernandez-D'Anna, Oliver J. Bosch, and Joseph S. Lonstein

Online publication date:
Sep 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Neuroendocrine and Autonomic Systems
For female mammals, caring for young until weaning or even longer is an extension of the reproductive burden that begins at insemination. Given the high price females potentially pay for ... More

Mechanisms of Behavioral Changes After Spinal Cord Injury  

Karim Fouad, Abel Torres-Espín, and Keith K. Fenrich

Online publication date:
Jan 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Disorders of the Nervous System, Motor Systems
Spinal cord injury results in a wide range of behavioral changes including impaired motor and sensory function, autonomic dysfunction, spasticity, and depression. Currently, restoring lost ... More

Membrane-Initiated Estradiol Signaling in the Central Nervous System  

Paul E. Micevych and Melinda A. Mittelman-Smith

Online publication date:
May 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Neuroendocrine and Autonomic Systems
In the last two decades of the 20th century, key findings in the field of estrogen signaling completely changed our understanding of hormones: first, steroidogenesis was demonstrated in the ... More

Mineralocorticoid Receptors and Glucocorticoid Receptors in HPA Stress Responses During Coping and Adaptation  

Edo Ronald de Kloet and Marian Joëls

Online publication date:
Jan 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Neuroendocrine and Autonomic Systems
The glucocorticoid hormones cortisol and corticosterone coordinate circadian events and are master regulators of the stress response. These actions of the glucocorticoids are mediated by ... More

Molecular Biology and Physiology of Circadian Clocks  

Ruifeng Cao

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Neuroendocrine and Autonomic Systems
Circadian rhythm is the approximately 24-hour rhythmicity that regulates physiology and behavior in a variety of organisms. The mammalian circadian system is organized in a hierarchical ... More

Molecular Regulation of Energy Balance  

D. Grahame Hardie and A. Mark Evans

Online publication date:
May 2019
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a sensor of cellular energy status that monitors the levels of AMP and ADP relative to ATP. If increases in AMP:ATP and/or ADP:ATP ratios are detected ... More

Motion Processing in Primates  

Tyler S. Manning and Kenneth H. Britten

Online publication date:
May 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Sensory Systems
The ability to see motion is critical to survival in a dynamic world. Decades of physiological research have established that motion perception is a distinct sub-modality of vision ... More

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