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The Hypocretin Arousal Network

The hypocretins (also known as orexins) are selectively expressed in a subset of lateral hypothalamic neurons. Since the reports of their discovery in 1998, they have been intensely ... More

Hypothalamic Control of Female Reproduction

Online publication date:
May 2017
Female reproduction is an interplay between the hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovaries. While the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neuron in the hypothalamus regulates gonadal function ... More

Inflammatory Signals and Sexual Differentiation of the Brain

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Mar 2019
Sex differences in the brain are established by the differential gonadal steroid hormonal milieu experienced by developing male and female fetuses and newborns. Androgen production by the ... More

Insect Navigation: Neural Basis to Behavior

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Apr 2018
Navigation is the ability of animals to move through their environment in a planned manner. Different from directed but reflex-driven movements, it involves the comparison of ... More

Invertebrate Nociception

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Mar 2017
Nociception is a protective mechanism that mediates behavioral responses to a range of potentially damaging stimuli, including noxious temperature, chemicals, and mechanical stimulation. ... More

Jellyfish Locomotion

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May 2018
Two dichotomies exist within the swim systems of jellyfish—one centered on the mechanics of locomotion and the other on phylogenetic differences in nervous system organization. For example, ... More

Leech Behavioral Choice

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Sep 2017
New techniques for recording the activity of many neurons simultaneously have given insights into how neuronal circuits make the decision to perform one of many possible behaviors. A ... More

Leech Mechanosensation

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Jul 2017
The medicinal leech (Hirudo verbana) is an annelid (segmented worm) and one of the classic model systems in neuroscience. It has been used in research for over 50 years and was one of the ... More

Long-Term Potentiation and Long-Term Depression

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Feb 2018
Synaptic connections in the brain can change their strength in response to patterned activity. This ability of synapses is defined as synaptic plasticity. Long lasting forms of synaptic ... More

Mammalian Visual System Organization

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Feb 2017
Many mammals, including humans, rely primarily on vision to sense the environment. While a large proportion of the brain is devoted to vision in highly visual animals, there are not enough ... More

Maternal Behavior From a Neuroendocrine Perspective

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Sep 2019
For female mammals, caring for young until weaning or even longer is an extension of the reproductive burden that begins at insemination. Given the high price females potentially pay for ... More

Mechanisms of Behavioral Changes After Spinal Cord Injury

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Jan 2019
Spinal cord injury results in a wide range of behavioral changes including impaired motor and sensory function, autonomic dysfunction, spasticity, and depression. Currently, restoring lost ... More

Membrane-Initiated Estradiol Signaling in the Central Nervous System

Online publication date:
May 2019
In the last two decades of the 20th century, key findings in the field of estrogen signaling completely changed our understanding of hormones: first, steroidogenesis was demonstrated in the ... More

Mineralocorticoid Receptors and Glucocorticoid Receptors in HPA Stress Responses During Coping and Adaptation

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Jan 2020
The glucocorticoid hormones cortisol and corticosterone coordinate circadian events and are master regulators of the stress response. These actions of the glucocorticoids are mediated by ... More

Molecular Biology and Physiology of Circadian Clocks

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Jun 2019
Circadian rhythm is the approximately 24-hour rhythmicity that regulates physiology and behavior in a variety of organisms. The mammalian circadian system is organized in a hierarchical ... More

Molecular Regulation of Energy Balance

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a sensor of cellular energy status that monitors the levels of AMP and ADP relative to ATP. If increases in AMP:ATP and/or ADP:ATP ratios are detected ... More

Motion Processing in Primates

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May 2017
The ability to see motion is critical to survival in a dynamic world. Decades of physiological research have established that motion perception is a distinct sub-modality of vision ... More

Multisensory Integration and the Perception of Self-Motion

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Jan 2018
As we go about our everyday activities, our brain computes accurate estimates of both our motion relative to the world, and of our orientation relative to gravity. Essential to this ... More

Navigation Towards the Source Through Chemosensory Strategies and Mechanisms

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Dec 2019
Asymmetry of bilateral visual and auditory sensors has functional advantages for depth visual perception and localization of auditory signals, respectively. In order to detect the spatial ... More

Network Analyses and Nervous System Disorders

Online publication date:
Sep 2018
Network analyses in nervous system disorders involve constructing and analyzing anatomical and functional brain networks from neuroimaging data to describe and predict the clinical ... More

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