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Rapid Adaptive Camouflage in Cephalopods  

Chuan-Chin Chiao and Roger T. Hanlon

Online publication date:
Dec 2019
Visual camouflage change is a hallmark of octopus, squid, and cuttlefish and serves as their primary defense against predators. They can change their total body appearance in less than a ... More

Raptor Vision  

Mindaugas Mitkus, Simon Potier, Graham R. Martin, Olivier Duriez, and Almut Kelber

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Diurnal raptors (birds of the orders Accipitriformes and Falconiformes), renowned for their extraordinarily sharp eyesight, have fascinated humans for centuries. The high visual acuity in ... More

Regulation of Chloride Gradients and Neural Plasticity  

Jimena Perez-Sanchez and Yves De Koninck

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
One of the most remarkable properties of neural circuits is the ability to restructure their synaptic connections throughout life. This synaptic plasticity allows neurons to structurally ... More

Regulation of Gonadotropins  

Daniel J. Bernard, Yining Li, Chirine Toufaily, and Gauthier Schang

Online publication date:
May 2019
The gonadotropins, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), are glycoproteins produced by gonadotrope cells of the anterior pituitary gland. The two hormones act on ... More

Role of Sex Hormones on Pain  

Dayna L. Averitt, Rebecca S. Hornung, and Anne Z. Murphy

The modulatory influence of sex hormones on acute pain, chronic pain disorders, and pain management has been reported for over seven decades. The effect of hormones on pain is clearly ... More

Sensing Polarized Light in Insects  

Thomas F. Mathejczyk and Mathias F. Wernet

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Evolution has produced vast morphological and behavioral diversity amongst insects, including very successful adaptations to a diverse range of ecological niches spanning the invasion of ... More

Sensing the Environment With Whiskers  

Mathew H. Evans, Michaela S.E. Loft, Dario Campagner, and Rasmus S. Petersen

Online publication date:
May 2019
Whiskers (vibrissae) are prominent on the snout of many mammals, both terrestrial and aquatic. The defining feature of whiskers is that they are rooted in large follicles with dense sensory ... More

Sex-Specific Regulation of Peripheral and Central Immune Responses  

Sabra L. Klein and Jaclyn M. Schwarz

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
Sex is a biological variable that affects immune responses to both self and foreign antigens (e.g., microbial infections) in the central nervous system (CNS) as well as in peripheral ... More

Sexual Behavior in Females from a Neuroendocrine Perspective  

Donald Pfaff

Online publication date:
Jul 2016
Understanding of the brain mechanisms regulating reproductive behaviors in female laboratory animals has been aided greatly by our knowledge of estrogen receptors in the brain. Hypothalamic ... More

Sexual Behavior in Males From a Neuroendocrine Perspective  

Jacques Balthazart and Gregory F. Ball

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
It is well established that testosterone from testicular origin plays a critical role in the activation of male sexual behavior in most, if not all, vertebrate species. These effects take ... More

Single Neuron Computational Modeling  

Yeonjoo Yoo and Fabrizio Gabbiani

Online publication date:
May 2019
Computational modeling is essential to understand how the complex dendritic structure and membrane properties of a neuron process input signals to generate output signals. Compartmental ... More

Somatosensory System Organization in Mammals and Response to Spinal Injury  

Corinna Darian-Smith and Karen Fisher

Online publication date:
Dec 2019
Spinal cord injury (SCI) affects well over a million people in the United States alone, and its personal and societal costs are huge. This article provides a current overview of the ... More

Stereopsis and Depth Perception  

Andrew J. Parker

Online publication date:
May 2019
Humans and some animals can use their two eyes in cooperation to detect and discriminate parts of the visual scene based on depth. Owing to the horizontal separation of the eyes, each eye ... More

Steroids and Plasticity  

Alyssa L. Pedersen and Colin J. Saldanha

Online publication date:
Apr 2017
Given the profound influence of steroids on the organization and activation of the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS), it is perhaps not surprising that these molecules are involved in ... More

Stomatogastric Nervous System  

Wolfgang Stein

Online publication date:
Apr 2017
The crustacean stomatogastric nervous system contains a set of distinct but interacting rhythmic motor circuits that control movements of the foregut. When isolated, these circuits produce ... More

Stomatopod Vision  

Thomas W. Cronin, N. Justin Marshall, and Roy L. Caldwell

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
The predatory stomatopod crustaceans, or mantis shrimp, are among the most attractive and dynamic creatures living in the sea. Their special features include their powerful raptorial ... More

Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Anatomy, Physiology, and Neurochemistry  

Rae Silver

Online publication date:
Oct 2018
We live in an approximately 24-hour world and circadian rhythms have evolved to adapt organisms to the opportunities presented by Earth’s 24-hour cycle of light and dark. A “master clock” ... More

Thalamocortical Interactions for Sensory Processing  

Jose M. Alonso and Harvey A. Swadlow

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
The thalamocortical pathway is the main route of sensory information to the cerebral cortex. Vision, touch, hearing, taste, and balance all depend on the integrity of this pathway that ... More

Thirst and Water Balance  

Derek Daniels

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
Maintaining water balance is critical for survival, but our bodies are constantly losing more water than we produce. Consuming water, therefore, is needed to restore what is lost by ... More

Transcriptomic Architecture of Reproductive Plasticity  

Susan C. P. Renn and Nadia Aubin-Horth

Online publication date:
May 2019
Several species show diversity in reproductive patterns that result from phenotypic plasticity. This reproductive plasticity is found for example in mate choice, parental care, reproduction ... More

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