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Plastic Changes After Spinal Cord Injury  

Kaitlin Farrell, Megan R. Detloff, and John D. Houle

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Molecular and Cellular Systems
Spinal cord injury has instantaneous, destructive effects on bodily functions, as readily demonstrated by muscle paralysis and non-responsiveness to sensory stimulation. This primary ... More

Plasticity in the Regenerating Nervous System of the Lamprey, a “Simple” Vertebrate  

William Rodemer, Jianli Hu, and Michael E. Selzer

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Human spinal cord injury (SCI) results in long-lasting disabilities due to the failure of damaged neurons to regenerate. The barriers to axon regeneration in mammalian central nervous ... More

Plasticity of Stepping Rhythms in the Intact and Injured Mammalian Spinal Cord  

Serge Rossignol

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Motor Systems
The spinal cord is a prime example of how the central nervous system has evolved to execute and retain movements adapted to the environment. This results from the evolution of inborn ... More

Postnatal Neurogenesis in the Olfactory Bulb  

Aleksandra Polosukhina and Pierre-Marie Lledo

Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Development
This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Neuroscience. Please check back later for the full article. In ... More

Prolactin: Regulation and Actions  

Robert S. Bridges

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Neuroendocrine and Autonomic Systems
Prolactin (PRL) is a protein hormone with a molecular weight of approximately 23 KD, although variants in size exist. It binds to receptor dimers on the cytoplasmic surface of its target ... More

Rapid Adaptive Camouflage in Cephalopods  

Chuan-Chin Chiao and Roger T. Hanlon

Online publication date:
Dec 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Invertebrate Neuroscience
Visual camouflage change is a hallmark of octopus, squid, and cuttlefish and serves as their primary defense against predators. They can change their total body appearance in less than a ... More

Raptor Vision  

Mindaugas Mitkus, Simon Potier, Graham R. Martin, Olivier Duriez, and Almut Kelber

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Sensory Systems
Diurnal raptors (birds of the orders Accipitriformes and Falconiformes), renowned for their extraordinarily sharp eyesight, have fascinated humans for centuries. The high visual acuity in ... More

Regulation of Chloride Gradients and Neural Plasticity  

Jimena Perez-Sanchez and Yves De Koninck

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Molecular and Cellular Systems
One of the most remarkable properties of neural circuits is the ability to restructure their synaptic connections throughout life. This synaptic plasticity allows neurons to structurally ... More

Regulation of Gonadotropins  

Daniel J. Bernard, Yining Li, Chirine Toufaily, and Gauthier Schang

Online publication date:
May 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Neuroendocrine and Autonomic Systems
The gonadotropins, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), are glycoproteins produced by gonadotrope cells of the anterior pituitary gland. The two hormones act on ... More

The Role of Microglia in Brain Aging: A Focus on Sex Differences  

Jeffrey S. Darling, Kevin Sanchez, Andrew D. Gaudet, and Laura K. Fonken

Online publication date:
Aug 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Neuroendocrine and Autonomic Systems
Microglia, the primary innate immune cells of the brain, are critical for brain maintenance, inflammatory responses, and development in both sexes across the lifespan. Indeed, changes in ... More

Role of Puberty on Adult Behaviors  

Kristen Delevich and Linda Wilbrecht

Online publication date:
Jul 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Neuroendocrine and Autonomic Systems
Puberty onset marks the beginning of adolescence and an organism’s transition to adulthood. Across species, adolescence is a dynamic period of maturation for brain and behavior. Pubertal ... More

Role of Sex Hormones on Pain  

Dayna L. Averitt, Rebecca S. Hornung, and Anne Z. Murphy

Online publication date:
Nov 2019
The modulatory influence of sex hormones on acute pain, chronic pain disorders, and pain management has been reported for over seven decades. The effect of hormones on pain is clearly ... More

Sensing Polarized Light in Insects  

Thomas F. Mathejczyk and Mathias F. Wernet

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Sensory Systems, Invertebrate Neuroscience
Evolution has produced vast morphological and behavioral diversity amongst insects, including very successful adaptations to a diverse range of ecological niches spanning the invasion of ... More

Sensing the Environment With Whiskers  

Mathew H. Evans, Michaela S.E. Loft, Dario Campagner, and Rasmus S. Petersen

Online publication date:
May 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Sensory Systems
Whiskers (vibrissae) are prominent on the snout of many mammals, both terrestrial and aquatic. The defining feature of whiskers is that they are rooted in large follicles with dense sensory ... More

Sex-Specific Regulation of Peripheral and Central Immune Responses  

Sabra L. Klein and Jaclyn M. Schwarz

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Neuroendocrine and Autonomic Systems
Sex is a biological variable that affects immune responses to both self and foreign antigens (e.g., microbial infections) in the central nervous system (CNS) as well as in peripheral ... More

Sexual Behavior in Females from a Neuroendocrine Perspective  

Donald Pfaff

Online publication date:
Jul 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Neuroendocrine and Autonomic Systems
Understanding of the brain mechanisms regulating reproductive behaviors in female laboratory animals has been aided greatly by our knowledge of estrogen receptors in the brain. Hypothalamic ... More

Sexual Behavior in Males From a Neuroendocrine Perspective  

Jacques Balthazart and Gregory F. Ball

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Neuroendocrine and Autonomic Systems
It is well established that testosterone from testicular origin plays a critical role in the activation of male sexual behavior in most, if not all, vertebrate species. These effects take ... More

Single Neuron Computational Modeling  

Yeonjoo Yoo and Fabrizio Gabbiani

Online publication date:
May 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Sensory Systems
Computational modeling is essential to understand how the complex dendritic structure and membrane properties of a neuron process input signals to generate output signals. Compartmental ... More

Somatosensory System Organization in Mammals and Response to Spinal Injury  

Corinna Darian-Smith and Karen Fisher

Online publication date:
Dec 2019
Spinal cord injury (SCI) affects well over a million people in the United States alone, and its personal and societal costs are huge. This article provides a current overview of the ... More

Stereopsis and Depth Perception  

Andrew J. Parker

Online publication date:
May 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Sensory Systems
Humans and some animals can use their two eyes in cooperation to detect and discriminate parts of the visual scene based on depth. Owing to the horizontal separation of the eyes, each eye ... More

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