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Steroids and Plasticity  

Alyssa L. Pedersen and Colin J. Saldanha

Online publication date:
Apr 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Neuroendocrine and Autonomic Systems
Given the profound influence of steroids on the organization and activation of the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS), it is perhaps not surprising that these molecules are involved in ... More

Stomatogastric Nervous System  

Wolfgang Stein

Online publication date:
Apr 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Invertebrate Neuroscience
The crustacean stomatogastric nervous system contains a set of distinct but interacting rhythmic motor circuits that control movements of the foregut. When isolated, these circuits produce ... More

Stomatopod Vision  

Thomas W. Cronin, N. Justin Marshall, and Roy L. Caldwell

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Invertebrate Neuroscience
The predatory stomatopod crustaceans, or mantis shrimp, are among the most attractive and dynamic creatures living in the sea. Their special features include their powerful raptorial ... More

Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Anatomy, Physiology, and Neurochemistry  

Rae Silver

Online publication date:
Oct 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Neuroendocrine and Autonomic Systems
We live in an approximately 24-hour world and circadian rhythms have evolved to adapt organisms to the opportunities presented by Earth’s 24-hour cycle of light and dark. A “master clock” ... More

Thalamocortical Interactions for Sensory Processing  

Jose M. Alonso and Harvey A. Swadlow

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Sensory Systems
The thalamocortical pathway is the main route of sensory information to the cerebral cortex. Vision, touch, hearing, taste, and balance all depend on the integrity of this pathway that ... More

Thirst and Water Balance  

Derek Daniels

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Neuroendocrine and Autonomic Systems
Maintaining water balance is critical for survival, but our bodies are constantly losing more water than we produce. Consuming water, therefore, is needed to restore what is lost by ... More

Transcriptomic Architecture of Reproductive Plasticity  

Susan C. P. Renn and Nadia Aubin-Horth

Online publication date:
May 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Sensory Systems
Several species show diversity in reproductive patterns that result from phenotypic plasticity. This reproductive plasticity is found for example in mate choice, parental care, reproduction ... More

Urochordate Nervous Systems  

Kerrianne Ryan and Ian A. Meinertzhagen

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Invertebrate Neuroscience
Urochordates are chordate siblings that comprise the following marine invertebrates: the sessile Ascidiaceae, or sea squirts; planktonic Larvacea; and the pelagic salps, doliolids, and ... More

Using Neural Stem Cells to Enhance Repair and Recovery of Spinal Circuits After Injury  

Itzhak Fischer and Shaoping Hou

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Spinal cord injury is characterized by a complex set of events, which include the disruption of connectivity between the brain and the periphery with little or no spontaneous regeneration, ... More

Visual Attention  

Sabine Kastner and Timothy J. Buschman

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Cognitive Neuroscience, Sensory Systems
Natural scenes are cluttered and contain many objects that cannot all be processed simultaneously. Due to this limited processing capacity, neural mechanisms are needed to selectively ... More

Visual Shape and Object Perception  

Anitha Pasupathy, Yasmine El-Shamayleh, and Dina V. Popovkina

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
Humans and other primates rely on vision. Our visual system endows us with the ability to perceive, recognize, and manipulate objects, to avoid obstacles and dangers, to choose foods ... More

What Is a Neuronal Ensemble?  

Luis Carrillo-Reid and Rafael Yuste

Online publication date:
Jul 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Computational Neuroscience
Despite over a century of neuroscience research, the nature of the neural code, that is, how neuronal activity underlies motor, sensory, and cognitive functions, remains elusive. ... More

What is a Sequence? The Neural Mechanisms of Perceptual, Motor, and Task Sequences Across Species and Their Interaction with Addiction  

Theresa M. Desrochers and Theresa H. McKim

Online publication date:
Aug 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Motor Systems
Sequences permeate daily life. They can be defined as a discrete series of items or states that occur in a specific order with a beginning and end. The brain supports the perception and ... More

Xenacoelomorpha Nervous Systems  

Pedro Martínez, Volker Hartenstein, and Simon G. Sprecher

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Invertebrate Neuroscience
The emergence and diversification of bilateral animals are among the most important transitions in the history of life on our planet. A proper understanding of the evolutionary process will ... More

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