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Autonomic Regulation of Penile Erection  

K-E Andersson

Online publication date:
May 2019
Penile erection is a part of the human male sexual response, involving desire, excitation (erection), orgasm (ejaculation), and resolution, and autonomic nerves are involved in all phases. ... More

Autonomic Regulation of the Eye  

Paul J. May, Anton Reiner, and Paul D. Gamlin

Online publication date:
May 2019
The functions of the eye are regulated by and dependent upon the autonomic nervous system. The parasympathetic nervous system controls constriction of the iris and accommodation of the ... More

Membrane-Initiated Estradiol Signaling in the Central Nervous System  

Paul E. Micevych and Melinda A. Mittelman-Smith

Online publication date:
May 2019
In the last two decades of the 20th century, key findings in the field of estrogen signaling completely changed our understanding of hormones: first, steroidogenesis was demonstrated in ... More

Molecular Regulation of Energy Balance  

D. Grahame Hardie and A. Mark Evans

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a sensor of cellular energy status that monitors the levels of AMP and ADP relative to ATP. If increases in AMP:ATP and/or ADP:ATP ratios are ... More

Neural Control of Lower Urinary Tract Function  

Jonathan M. Beckel and William C. de Groat

Online publication date:
May 2019
Functions of the lower urinary tract to store and periodically eliminate urine are regulated by a complex neural control system in the brain and lumbosacral spinal cord that coordinates ... More

Regulation of Gonadotropins  

Daniel J. Bernard, Yining Li, Chirine Toufaily, and Gauthier Schang

Online publication date:
May 2019
The gonadotropins, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), are glycoproteins produced by gonadotrope cells of the anterior pituitary gland. The two hormones act on ... More

Autonomic Control of Immune Function  

Eric S. Wohleb

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Proper immune function is critical to maintain homeostasis, recognize and eliminate pathogens, and promote tissue repair. Primary and secondary immune organs receive input from the ... More

Neurobiology of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Abuse  

Ruth I. Wood and Kathryn G. Wallin-Miller

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are both performance-enhancing substances and drugs of abuse. Although AAS are banned in competitive sports, they are widely used by both elite and ... More

Neuroendocrine Mechanisms of Psychological Stress: Age and Sex Differences in Adults  

Allison E. Gaffey and Brandy S. Martinez

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
There are two main branches of the human stress response. The autonomic nervous system acts rapidly and is often referred to as our fight or flight response. The slow-acting arm of the ... More

Inflammatory Signals and Sexual Differentiation of the Brain  

Margaret M. McCarthy

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Sex differences in the brain are established by the differential gonadal steroid hormonal milieu experienced by developing male and female fetuses and newborns. Androgen production by the ... More

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