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Active Electroreception in Weakly Electric Fish  

Angel Ariel Caputi

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Sensory Systems
American gymnotiformes and African mormyriformes have evolved an active sensory system using a self-generated electric field as a carrier of signals. Objects polarized by the discharge of a ... More

Aging and Olfaction  

Richard L. Doty

Online publication date:
Apr 2020
Decreased ability to smell is common in older persons. Some demonstrable smell loss is present in more than 50% of those 65 to 80 years of age, with up to 10% having no smell at all ... More

Annelid Vision  

Cynthia M. Harley and Mark K. Asplen

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Annelid worms are simultaneously an interesting and difficult model system for understanding the evolution of animal vision. On the one hand, a wide variety of photoreceptor cells and eye ... More

Auditory Hair Cells and Sensory Transduction  

Jeffrey R. Holt and Gwenaëlle S.G. Géléoc

Online publication date:
May 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Sensory Systems
The organs of the vertebrate inner ear respond to a variety of mechanical stimuli: semicircular canals are sensitive to angular velocity, the saccule and utricle respond to linear ... More

Auditory Mechanisms of Echolocation in Bats  

Cynthia F. Moss

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Motor Systems, Sensory Systems
Echolocating bats have evolved an active sensing system, which supports 3D perception of objects in the surroundings and permits spatial navigation in complete darkness. Echolocating ... More

Auditory Processing in the Aging Brain  

Gregg Recanzone

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Sensory Systems
Age-related hearing loss affects over half of the elderly population, yet it remains poorly understood. Natural aging can cause the input to the brain from the cochlea to be progressively ... More

Autonomic Thermoregulation  

Thad E. Wilson and Kristen Metzler-Wilson

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
Thermoregulation is a key physiologic homeostatic process and is subdivided into autonomic, behavioral, and adaptive divisions. Autonomic thermoregulation is a neural process related to the ... More

Biosonar and Sound Localization in Dolphins  

Paul E. Nachtigall

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Sensory Systems
Toothed whales and dolphins, odontocete cetaceans, produce very loud biosonar sounds in order to navigate and to locate and catch their prey of fish and squid. Underwater biosonar was not ... More

Brain-Derived Steroids and Behaviors  

Colin J. Saldanha

Online publication date:
May 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Sensory Systems
Since the early 1980s, evidence suggesting that the vertebrate brain is a rich source of steroid hormones has been decisive and extensive. This evidence includes data from many vertebrate ... More

Caenorhabditis elegans Olfaction  

Douglas K. Reilly and Jagan Srinivasan

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
To survive, animals must properly sense their surrounding environment. The types of sensation that allow for detecting these changes can be categorized as tactile, thermal, aural, or ... More

Chemoreception in Fishes  

Hiroshi Ueda

Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Sensory Systems
This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Neuroscience. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Cortical Processing of Odorants  

Yaniv Cohen, Emmanuelle Courtiol, Regina M. Sullivan, and Donald A. Wilson

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Sensory Systems
Odorants, inhaled through the nose or exhaled from the mouth through the nose, bind to receptors on olfactory sensory neurons. Olfactory sensory neurons project in a highly stereotyped ... More

Deep Neural Networks in Computational Neuroscience  

Tim C. Kietzmann, Patrick McClure, and Nikolaus Kriegeskorte

Online publication date:
Jan 2019
The goal of computational neuroscience is to find mechanistic explanations of how the nervous system processes information to give rise to cognitive function and behavior. At the heart of ... More

Drosophila Olfaction  

Quentin Gaudry and Jonathan Schenk

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Sensory Systems, Invertebrate Neuroscience
Olfactory systems are tasked with converting the chemical environment into electrical signals that the brain can use to optimize behaviors such as navigating towards resources, finding ... More

Evolution of Neocortex for Sensory Processing  

Jon H. Kaas

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Sensory Systems
The neocortex is a part of the forebrain of mammals that is an innovation of mammal-like “reptilian” synapsid ancestors of early mammals. This neocortex emerged from a small region of ... More

The Functional Organization of Vertebrate Retinal Circuits for Vision  

Tom Baden, Timm Schubert, Philipp Berens, and Thomas Euler

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Computational Neuroscience, Sensory Systems
Visual processing begins in the retina—a thin, multilayered neuronal tissue lining the back of the vertebrate eye. The retina does not merely read out the constant stream of photons ... More

Gastropod Feeding Systems: Evolution of Neural Circuits that Generate Diverse Behaviors  

Paul Benjamin and Michael Crossley

Online publication date:
Jan 2020
It is conceptually reasonable to explore how the evolution of behavior involves changes in neural circuitry. Progress in determining this evolutionary relationship has been limited in ... More

General Principles for Sensory Coding  

Tatyana O. Sharpee

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Computational Neuroscience, Sensory Systems
Sensory systems exist to provide an organism with information about the state of the environment that can be used to guide future actions and decisions. Remarkably, two conceptually simple ... More

Genetics and Evolution of Color Vision in Primates  

Gerald H. Jacobs

Online publication date:
May 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Sensory Systems
Color is a central feature of human perceptual experience where it functions as a critical component in the detection, identification, evaluation, placement, and appreciation of objects in ... More

Hormones and Animal Communication  

Eliot A. Brenowitz

Online publication date:
Dec 2019
Animals produce communication signals to attract mates and deter rivals during their breeding season. The coincidence in timing results from the modulation of signaling behavior and neural ... More

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