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• Molecular and Cellular Systems
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Caenorhabditis elegans Olfaction

To survive, animals must properly sense their surrounding environment. The types of sensation that allow for detecting these changes can be categorized as tactile, thermal, aural, or ... More

Cephalochordate Nervous System

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
The central and peripheral nervous systems of amphioxus adults and larvae are characterized by morphofunctional features relevant to understanding the origins and evolutionary history of ... More

Gut Dysbiosis and Recovery of Function After Spinal Cord Injury

Online publication date:
Jul 2019
Spinal cord injury (SCI) disrupts the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and impairs communication with organ systems throughout the body, resulting in chronic multi-organ pathology and ... More

Hemichordate Nervous System

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Hemichordates are marine invertebrates consisting of two distinct groups: the solitary enteropneusts and the colonial pterobranchs. Hemichordates are phylogenetically a sister group to ... More

Homeostatic Plasticity in the CNS

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
Homeostatic plasticity refers to a collection of mechanisms that function to homeostatically maintain some feature of neural function. The field began with the view that homeostatic ... More

The Hypocretin Arousal Network

The hypocretins (also known as orexins) are selectively expressed in a subset of lateral hypothalamic neurons. Since the reports of their discovery in 1998, they have been intensely ... More

Long-Term Potentiation and Long-Term Depression

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Synaptic connections in the brain can change their strength in response to patterned activity. This ability of synapses is defined as synaptic plasticity. Long lasting forms of synaptic ... More

Molecular Regulation of Energy Balance

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a sensor of cellular energy status that monitors the levels of AMP and ADP relative to ATP. If increases in AMP:ATP and/or ADP:ATP ratios are detected ... More

Neuroimmunology: Behavioral Effects

Bidirectional interactions between the immune system and central nervous system have been acknowledged for centuries. Over the past 100 years, pioneering studies in both animal models and ... More

Plastic Changes After Spinal Cord Injury

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
Spinal cord injury has instantaneous, destructive effects on bodily functions, as readily demonstrated by muscle paralysis and non-responsiveness to sensory stimulation. This primary ... More

Plasticity in the Regenerating Nervous System of the Lamprey, a “Simple” Vertebrate

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Feb 2018
Human spinal cord injury (SCI) results in long-lasting disabilities due to the failure of damaged neurons to regenerate. The barriers to axon regeneration in mammalian central nervous ... More

Regulation of Chloride Gradients and Neural Plasticity

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
One of the most remarkable properties of neural circuits is the ability to restructure their synaptic connections throughout life. This synaptic plasticity allows neurons to structurally ... More

Role of Sex Hormones on Pain

The modulatory influence of sex hormones on acute pain, chronic pain disorders, and pain management has been reported for over seven decades. The effect of hormones on pain is clearly ... More

Using Neural Stem Cells to Enhance Repair and Recovery of Spinal Circuits After Injury

Spinal cord injury is characterized by a complex set of events, which include the disruption of connectivity between the brain and the periphery with little or no spontaneous regeneration, ... More

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