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• Molecular and Cellular Systems
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## Caenorhabditis elegans Olfaction

To survive, animals must properly sense their surrounding environment. The types of sensation that allow for detecting these changes can be categorized as tactile, thermal, aural, or ... More

## Cephalochordate Nervous System

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
The central and peripheral nervous systems of amphioxus adults and larvae are characterized by morphofunctional features relevant to understanding the origins and evolutionary history of ... More

## Gut Dysbiosis and Recovery of Function After Spinal Cord Injury

Online publication date:
Jul 2019
Spinal cord injury (SCI) disrupts the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and impairs communication with organ systems throughout the body, resulting in chronic multi-organ pathology and ... More

## Hemichordate Nervous System

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Hemichordates are marine invertebrates consisting of two distinct groups: the solitary enteropneusts and the colonial pterobranchs. Hemichordates are phylogenetically a sister group to ... More

## Homeostatic Plasticity in the CNS

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
Homeostatic plasticity refers to a collection of mechanisms that function to homeostatically maintain some feature of neural function. The field began with the view that homeostatic ... More

## The Hypocretin Arousal Network

The hypocretins (also known as orexins) are selectively expressed in a subset of lateral hypothalamic neurons. Since the reports of their discovery in 1998, they have been intensely ... More

## Long-Term Potentiation and Long-Term Depression

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Synaptic connections in the brain can change their strength in response to patterned activity. This ability of synapses is defined as synaptic plasticity. Long lasting forms of synaptic ... More

## Molecular Regulation of Energy Balance

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a sensor of cellular energy status that monitors the levels of AMP and ADP relative to ATP. If increases in AMP:ATP and/or ADP:ATP ratios are ... More

## Neuroimmunology: Behavioral Effects

Bidirectional interactions between the immune system and central nervous system have been acknowledged for centuries. Over the past 100 years, pioneering studies in both animal models and ... More

## Plastic Changes After Spinal Cord Injury

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
Spinal cord injury has instantaneous, destructive effects on bodily functions, as readily demonstrated by muscle paralysis and non-responsiveness to sensory stimulation. This primary ... More

## Plasticity in the Regenerating Nervous System of the Lamprey, a “Simple” Vertebrate

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Feb 2018
Human spinal cord injury (SCI) results in long-lasting disabilities due to the failure of damaged neurons to regenerate. The barriers to axon regeneration in mammalian central nervous ... More

## Regulation of Chloride Gradients and Neural Plasticity

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
One of the most remarkable properties of neural circuits is the ability to restructure their synaptic connections throughout life. This synaptic plasticity allows neurons to structurally ... More

## Using Neural Stem Cells to Enhance Repair and Recovery of Spinal Circuits After Injury

Spinal cord injury is characterized by a complex set of events, which include the disruption of connectivity between the brain and the periphery with little or no spontaneous regeneration, ... More

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