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Annelid Vision  

Cynthia M. Harley and Mark K. Asplen

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Annelid worms are simultaneously an interesting and difficult model system for understanding the evolution of animal vision. On the one hand, a wide variety of photoreceptor cells and eye ... More

Caenorhabditis elegans Feeding Behaviors  

Nicolas Dallière, Lindy Holden-Dye, James Dillon, Vincent O'Connor, and Robert J. Walker

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
The microscopic free-living nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans was the first metazoan to have its genome sequenced and for many decades has served as a genetically tractable model for ... More

Caenorhabditis elegans Learning and Memory  

James S.H. Wong and Catharine H. Rankin

Online publication date:
May 2019
The nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), is an organism useful for the study of learning and memory at the molecular, cellular, neural circuitry, and behavioral levels. Its ... More

Caenorhabditis elegans Olfaction  

Douglas K. Reilly and Jagan Srinivasan

To survive, animals must properly sense their surrounding environment. The types of sensation that allow for detecting these changes can be categorized as tactile, thermal, aural, or ... More

Cephalochordate Nervous System  

Simona Candiani and Mario Pestarino

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
The central and peripheral nervous systems of amphioxus adults and larvae are characterized by morphofunctional features relevant to understanding the origins and evolutionary history of ... More

Cephalopod Nervous System Organization  

Z. Yan Wang and Clifton W. Ragsdale

Online publication date:
May 2019
Over 700 species of cephalopods live in the Earth’s waters, occupying almost every marine zone, from the benthic deep to the open ocean to tidal waters. The greatly varied forms and ... More

Cephalopod Olfaction  

Anna Di Cosmo and Gianluca Polese

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Within the Phylum Mollusca, cephalopods encompass a small and complex group of exclusively marine animals that live in all the oceans of the world with the exception of the Black and ... More

Crayfish Escape  

Donald Edwards

Online publication date:
May 2017
Crayfish are decapod crustaceans that use different forms of escape to flee from different types of predatory attacks. Lateral and Medial Giant escapes are released by giant interneurons ... More

Crustacean Olfaction  

Charles Derby and Manfred Schmidt

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Olfaction is a chemical sense present not only in mammals, insects, and other terrestrial animals, but also in crustaceans, most of which are aquatic. Crustaceans use olfaction for ... More

Crustacean Visual Circuits Underlying Behavior  

Daniel Tomsic and Julieta Sztarker

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Decapod crustaceans, in particular semiterrestrial crabs, are highly visual animals that greatly rely on visual information. Their responsiveness to visual moving stimuli, with behavioral ... More

Drosophila Olfaction  

Quentin Gaudry and Jonathan Schenk

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
Olfactory systems are tasked with converting the chemical environment into electrical signals that the brain can use to optimize behaviors such as navigating towards resources, finding ... More

Echinoderm Nervous System  

Carlos A. Díaz-Balzac and José E. García-Arrarás

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
The nervous system of echinoderms has been studied for well over a century. Nonetheless, the information available is disparate, with in-depth descriptions for the nervous component of ... More

Electrophysiology and Behavior of Cnidarian Nervous Systems  

Robert W. Meech

Online publication date:
May 2019
Although the Cnidaria have evolved a wide range of body forms matched with an equally varied neural anatomy, individual species exhibit common patterns of behavior. For example, in all ... More

Hemichordate Nervous System  

Norio Miyamoto and Hiroshi Wada

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Hemichordates are marine invertebrates consisting of two distinct groups: the solitary enteropneusts and the colonial pterobranchs. Hemichordates are phylogenetically a sister group to ... More

Insect Navigation: Neural Basis to Behavior  

Stanley Heinze

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Navigation is the ability of animals to move through their environment in a planned manner. Different from directed but reflex-driven movements, it involves the comparison of ... More

Invertebrate Nociception  

Nathaniel J. Himmel, Atit A. Patel, and Daniel N. Cox

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Nociception is a protective mechanism that mediates behavioral responses to a range of potentially damaging stimuli, including noxious temperature, chemicals, and mechanical stimulation. ... More

Jellyfish Locomotion  

Richard Satterlie

Online publication date:
May 2018
Two dichotomies exist within the swim systems of jellyfish—one centered on the mechanics of locomotion and the other on phylogenetic differences in nervous system organization. For ... More

Leech Behavioral Choice  

William B. Kristan Jr.

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
New techniques for recording the activity of many neurons simultaneously have given insights into how neuronal circuits make the decision to perform one of many possible behaviors. A ... More

Leech Mechanosensation  

Brian D. Burrell

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
The medicinal leech (Hirudo verbana) is an annelid (segmented worm) and one of the classic model systems in neuroscience. It has been used in research for over 50 years and was one of the ... More

Sensing Polarized Light in Insects  

Thomas F. Mathejczyk and Mathias F. Wernet

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Evolution has produced vast morphological and behavioral diversity amongst insects, including very successful adaptations to a diverse range of ecological niches spanning the invasion of ... More

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