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The spinal cord is a prime example of how the central nervous system has evolved to execute and retain movements adapted to the environment. This results from the evolution of inborn intrinsic spinal circuits modified continuously by repetitive interactions with the outside world, as well as by developing internal needs or goals. This article emphasizes the underlying neuroplastic spinal mechanisms through observations of normal animal adaptive locomotor behavior in different imposed conditions. It further explores the motor spinal capabilities after various types of lesions to the spinal cord and the potential mechanisms underlying the spinal changes occurring after these lesions, leading to recovery of function. Together, these observations strengthen the idea of the immense potential of the motor rehabilitation approach in humans with spinal cord injury since extrinsic interventions (training, pharmacology, and electrical stimulation) can modulate and optimize remnant motor functions after injury.


Nir Nesher, Guy Levy, Letizia Zullo, and Benyamin Hochner

The octopus, with its eight long and flexible arms, is an excellent example of the independent evolution of highly efficient motor behavior in a soft-bodied animal. Studies will be summarized to show that the amazing behavioral motor abilities of the octopus are achieved through a special embodied organization of its flexible body, unusual morphology, and a unique central and peripheral distribution of its extremely large nervous system. This special embodied organization of brain–body–environment reciprocal interactions makes it possible to overcome the difficulties involved in generation and control of movement in an animal, which unlike vertebrates and arthropods lacks rigid skeletal appendages.


William B. Kristan Jr.

New techniques for recording the activity of many neurons simultaneously have given insights into how neuronal circuits make the decision to perform one of many possible behaviors. A long-standing hypothesis for how behavioral choices are made in any animal is that “command neurons” are responsible for selecting individual behaviors, and that these same neurons inhibit the command neurons that elicit other behaviors. In fact, this mechanism has turned out to be just one of several ways that such decision-making is accomplished. In particular, for some behavioral choices, the circuits appear to overlap, sometimes extensively, to perform two or more behaviors. Making decisions using such “multifunctional neurons” has been proposed for large neural networks, but this strategy appears to be used in relatively small nervous systems, too. These simpler nervous systems can serve as useful test systems to test hypotheses about how the dynamics of networks of neurons can be used to select among different behaviors, similar to the mechanisms used by leeches deciding to swim, shorten, crawl, or feed.