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Proper immune function is critical to maintain homeostasis, recognize and eliminate pathogens, and promote tissue repair. Primary and secondary immune organs receive input from the autonomic nervous system and immune cells express receptors for epinephrine, norepinephrine, and/or acetylcholine. Through direct signaling the autonomic nervous system controls immune function by altering immune cell development, initiating redistribution of immune cells throughout the body, and promoting molecular pathways that shift immune cell reactivity. This neuroimmune communication allows the autonomic nervous system to shape immune function based on physiological and psychological demands.

Article

Understanding of the brain mechanisms regulating reproductive behaviors in female laboratory animals has been aided greatly by our knowledge of estrogen receptors in the brain. Hypothalamic neurons that express the gene for estrogen receptor-alpha regulate activity in the neural circuit for the simplest female reproductive response, lordosis behavior. In turn, many of the neurotransmitter inputs to the critical hypothalamic neurons have been studied using electrophysiological and neurochemical techniques. The upshot of all of these studies is that lordosis behavior presents the best understood set of mechanisms for any mammalian behavior.