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Craig Heller

The words “regulation” and “control” have different meanings. A rich literature exists on the control mechanisms of sleep—the genomic, molecular, cellular, and circuit processes responsible for arousal state changes and characteristics. The regulation of sleep refers to functions and homeostatic maintenance of those functions. Much less is known about sleep regulation than sleep control, largely because functions of sleep are still unknown. Regulation requires information about the regulated variable that can be used as feedback information to achieve optimal levels. The circadian timing of sleep is regulated, and the feedback information is entraining stimuli such as the light–dark cycle. Sleep itself is homeostatically regulated, as evidenced by sleep deprivation experiments. Eletroenceophalography (EEG) slow-wave activity (SWA) is regulated, and it appears that adenosine is the major source of feedback information, and that fact indicates an energetic function for sleep. The last aspect of sleep regulation discussed in this short article is the non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep cycling. Evidence is discussed that supports the argument that NREM sleep is in a homeostatic relationship with wake, and REM sleep is in a homeostatic relationship with NREM sleep.


Jeremy C. Borniger and Luis de Lecea

The hypocretins (also known as orexins) are selectively expressed in a subset of lateral hypothalamic neurons. Since the reports of their discovery in 1998, they have been intensely investigated in relation to their role in sleep/wake transitions, feeding, reward, drug abuse, and motivated behavior. This research has cemented their role as a subcortical relay optimized to tune arousal in response to various salient stimuli. This article reviews their discovery, physiological modulation, circuitry, and integrative functionality contributing to vigilance state transitions and stability. Specific emphasis is placed on humoral and neural inputs regulating hcrt neural function and new evidence for an autoimmune basis of the sleep disorder narcolepsy. Future directions for this field involve dissection of the heterogeneity of this neural population using single-cell transcriptomics, optogenetic, and chemogenetics, as well as monitoring population and single cell activity. Computational models of the hypocretin network, using the “flip-flop” or “integrator neuron” frameworks, provide a fundamental understanding of how this neural population influences brain-wide activity and behavior.


Steven Holfinger, M. Melanie Lyons, Nitin Bhatt, and Ulysses Magalang

Obstructive sleep apnea is recognized as a heterogeneous disease presenting with varying underlying risk factors, phenotypes, and responses to therapy. This clinical variance is in part due to the complex pathophysiology of sleep apnea. While multiple anatomical issues can predispose to the development of sleep apnea, factors that control the airway musculature also contribute via different pathophysiologic mechanisms. As sleep apnea does not occur during wakefulness, the impact of sleep stages on respiration is of critical importance. Altogether, understanding sleep apnea pathophysiology helps to guide current treatment modalities and helps identify potential targets for future therapies.