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  • Keywords: neuromodulation x
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Wolfgang Stein

The crustacean stomatogastric nervous system contains a set of distinct but interacting rhythmic motor circuits that control movements of the foregut. When isolated, these circuits produce activity patterns that are almost perfect replicas of their behavior in vivo. The ease with which distinct circuit neurons are identified, recorded, and manipulated has provided considerable insight into the general principles of how motor circuits operate and are controlled at the cellular level. The small number of relatively large neurons has facilitated several technical advances in neuroscience research and allowed the identification of one of the earliest circuit connectomes. This enabled, for the first time, studies of circuit dynamics using the relationships between all component neurons of a nervous center. A major discovery was that circuits are not dedicated to producing a single neuronal activity pattern, and that the involved neurons are not committed to particular circuits. This flexibility results predominantly from the ability of neuromodulators to change the cellular and synaptic properties of circuit neurons. The relatively unique access to, and detailed documentation of, identified circuit, sensory, and descending pathways has also started new avenues into examining how individual modulatory neurons and transmitters affect their target cells. Groundbreaking experimental and modeling work has further demonstrated that the intrinsic properties of neurons depend on their recent history of activation and that neurons and circuits counterbalance destabilizing influences by compensatory homeostatic regulation of ionic conductances. The stomatogastric microcircuits continue to provide key insight into neural circuit operation in numerically larger and less accessible systems.


Eliot A. Brenowitz

Animals produce communication signals to attract mates and deter rivals during their breeding season. The coincidence in timing results from the modulation of signaling behavior and neural activity by sex steroid hormones associated with reproduction. Adrenal steroids can influence signaling for aggressive interactions outside the breeding season. Androgenic and estrogenic hormones act on brain circuits that regulate the motivation to produce and respond to signals, the motor production of signals, and the sensory perception of signals. Signal perception, in turn, can stimulate gonadal development.