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Autonomic Control of Immune Function  

Eric S. Wohleb

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Proper immune function is critical to maintain homeostasis, recognize and eliminate pathogens, and promote tissue repair. Primary and secondary immune organs receive input from the ... More

Autonomic Regulation of Penile Erection  

K-E Andersson

Online publication date:
May 2019
Penile erection is a part of the human male sexual response, involving desire, excitation (erection), orgasm (ejaculation), and resolution, and autonomic nerves are involved in all phases. ... More

Autonomic Regulation of the Eye  

Paul J. May, Anton Reiner, and Paul D. Gamlin

Online publication date:
May 2019
The functions of the eye are regulated by and dependent upon the autonomic nervous system. The parasympathetic nervous system controls constriction of the iris and accommodation of the ... More

Autonomic Thermoregulation  

Thad E. Wilson and Kristen Metzler-Wilson

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
Thermoregulation is a key physiologic homeostatic process and is subdivided into autonomic, behavioral, and adaptive divisions. Autonomic thermoregulation is a neural process related to ... More

Behavioral Neuroendocrinology of Female Aggression  

Natalia Duque-Wilckens and Brian C. Trainor

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
Aggressive behavior plays an essential role in survival and reproduction across animal species—it has been observed in insects, fish, reptiles, and mammals including humans. Even though ... More

Central Mechanisms Regulating Coordinated Cardiovascular and Respiratory Function  

Roger Dampney

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
In response to changes in metabolic demand, the cardiovascular and respiratory systems are regulated in a highly coordinated fashion, such that both ventilation and cardiac output increase ... More

The Hypocretin Arousal Network  

Jeremy C. Borniger and Luis de Lecea

The hypocretins (also known as orexins) are selectively expressed in a subset of lateral hypothalamic neurons. Since the reports of their discovery in 1998, they have been intensely ... More

Hypothalamic Control of Female Reproduction  

Brian P. Kenealy and Ei Terasawa

Online publication date:
May 2017
Female reproduction is an interplay between the hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovaries. While the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neuron in the hypothalamus regulates gonadal function ... More

Inflammatory Signals and Sexual Differentiation of the Brain  

Margaret M. McCarthy

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Sex differences in the brain are established by the differential gonadal steroid hormonal milieu experienced by developing male and female fetuses and newborns. Androgen production by the ... More

Maternal Behavior From a Neuroendocrine Perspective  

Danielle S. Stolzenberg, Kimberly L. Hernandez-D'Anna, Oliver J. Bosch, and Joseph S. Lonstein

Online publication date:
Sep 2019
For female mammals, caring for young until weaning or even longer is an extension of the reproductive burden that begins at insemination. Given the high price females potentially pay for ... More

Membrane-Initiated Estradiol Signaling in the Central Nervous System  

Paul E. Micevych and Melinda A. Mittelman-Smith

Online publication date:
May 2019
In the last two decades of the 20th century, key findings in the field of estrogen signaling completely changed our understanding of hormones: first, steroidogenesis was demonstrated in ... More

Molecular Biology and Physiology of Circadian Clocks  

Ruifeng Cao

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
Circadian rhythm is the approximately 24-hour rhythmicity that regulates physiology and behavior in a variety of organisms. The mammalian circadian system is organized in a hierarchical ... More

Molecular Regulation of Energy Balance  

D. Grahame Hardie and A. Mark Evans

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a sensor of cellular energy status that monitors the levels of AMP and ADP relative to ATP. If increases in AMP:ATP and/or ADP:ATP ratios are ... More

Neural Control of Lower Urinary Tract Function  

Jonathan M. Beckel and William C. de Groat

Online publication date:
May 2019
Functions of the lower urinary tract to store and periodically eliminate urine are regulated by a complex neural control system in the brain and lumbosacral spinal cord that coordinates ... More

Neurobiology of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Abuse  

Ruth I. Wood and Kathryn G. Wallin-Miller

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are both performance-enhancing substances and drugs of abuse. Although AAS are banned in competitive sports, they are widely used by both elite and ... More

Neuroendocrine Influences on Human Sexuality  

Ashlyn Swift-Gallant and S. Marc Breedlove

Online publication date:
Jul 2019
While prenatal sex hormones guide the development of sex-typical reproductive structures, they also act on the developing brain, resulting in sex differences in brain and behavior in ... More

Neuroendocrine Mechanisms of Circadian Rhythms in Diurnal Species  

Lily Yan, Laura Smale, and Antonio A. Nunez

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
Circadian rhythms are endogenous daily rhythms evident in behavior and physiology. In mammals, these rhythms are controlled by a hierarchical network of oscillators showing a coherent ... More

Neuroendocrine Mechanisms of Psychological Stress: Age and Sex Differences in Adults  

Allison E. Gaffey and Brandy S. Martinez

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
There are two main branches of the human stress response. The autonomic nervous system acts rapidly and is often referred to as our fight or flight response. The slow-acting arm of the ... More

Neuroendocrine Regulation of Seasonal Reproduction  

Elisabetta Tolla, Jonathan H. Pérez, Ian C. Dunn, Simone L. Meddle, and Tyler J. Stevenson

Online publication date:
Jul 2019
Neuroendocrine mechanisms control the seasonal reproduction in birds and mammals. Seasonal reproduction is ubiquitous across vertebrate and invertebrate species, and its timing is ... More

Neuroimmunology: Behavioral Effects  

Gretchen N. Neigh, Mandakh Bekhbat, and Sydney A. Rowson

Bidirectional interactions between the immune system and central nervous system have been acknowledged for centuries. Over the past 100 years, pioneering studies in both animal models and ... More

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