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date: 20 January 2022

Neuroendocrine and Neuroimmune Mechanisms Regulating the Blood-Brain Barrierlocked

Neuroendocrine and Neuroimmune Mechanisms Regulating the Blood-Brain Barrierlocked

  • Divine C. Nwafor, Divine C. NwaforWest Virginia University Health Sciences Center, Department of Neuroscience
  • Allison L. Brichacek, Allison L. BrichacekWest Virginia University Health Sciences Center, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology
  • Sreeparna Chakraborty, Sreeparna ChakrabortyWest Virginia University Health Sciences Center, Department of Neuroscience
  • Catheryne A. Gambill, Catheryne A. GambillWest Virginia University Health Sciences Center, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology
  • Stanley A. BenkovicStanley A. BenkovicWest Virginia University Health Sciences Center, Department of Neuroscience
  •  and Candice M. BrownCandice M. BrownWest Virginia University Health Sciences Center, Department of Neuroscience

Summary

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a dynamic structural interface between the brain and periphery that plays a critical function in maintaining cerebral homeostasis. Over the past two decades, technological advances have improved our understanding of the neuroimmune and neuroendocrine mechanisms that regulate a healthy BBB. The combination of biological sex, sex steroids, age, coupled with innate and adaptive immune components orchestrates the crosstalk between the BBB and the periphery. Likewise, the BBB also serves as a nexus within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and gut-brain-microbiota axes. Compromised BBB integrity permits the entry of bioactive molecules, immune cells, microbes, and other components that migrate into the brain parenchyma and compromise neuronal function. A paramount understanding of the mechanisms that determine the bidirectional crosstalk between the BBB and immune and endocrine pathways has become increasingly important for implementation of therapeutic strategies to treat a number of neurological disorders that are significantly impacted by the BBB. Examples of these disorders include multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, stroke, epilepsy, and traumatic brain injury.

Subjects

  • Neuroendocrine and Autonomic Systems

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