Sexual Behavior in Males From a Neuroendocrine Perspective
Summary and Keywords
It is well established that testosterone from testicular origin plays a critical role in the activation of male sexual behavior in most, if not all, vertebrate species. These effects take place to a large extent in the preoptic area although other brain sites are obviously also implicated. In its target areas, testosterone is actively metabolized either into estrogenic and androgenic steroids that have specific behavioral effects or into inactive metabolites. These transformations either amplify the behavioral activity of testosterone or, alternatively, metabolism to an inactive compound dissipates any biological effect. Androgens and estrogens then bind to nuclear receptors that modulate the transcription of specific genes. This process is controlled by a variety of co-activators and co-repressors that, respectively, enhance or inhibit these transcriptional processes. In addition, recent work has shown that the production of estrogens by brain aromatase can be modulated within minutes by changes in neural activity and that these rapid changes in neuroestrogen production impact sexual behavior, in particular sexual motivation within the same time frame. Estrogens thus affect specific aspects of male sexual behavior in two different time frames via two types of mechanisms that are completely different. Multiple questions remain open concerning the cellular brain mechanisms that mediate testosterone action on male sexual behavior.
In a classic experiment completed on domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus), Adolph Arnold Berthold established in the middle of the 19th century that male sexual attributes, including sexual behavior, depend on the action of a diffusible substance produced by the testes (Berthold, 1849). This chemical messenger was identified as the sex steroid testosterone at the beginning of the 20th century; its purification from animal tissues and, soon thereafter, its full chemical synthesis allowed scientists to analyze in detail the morphological, physiological and behavioral effects of this steroid (Morales, 2013). It is now established that in (nearly) all vertebrate species, male sexual behavior is activated by testosterone originating from the testes, as is well illustrated by castration and replacement studies (Nelson, 2011). In nearly all species tested so far that belong to all classes of vertebrates from fishes to mammals, castration markedly reduces or completely eliminates the expression of a wide range of male sexual behaviors; these behaviors are restored within a few days by a treatment with exogenous testosterone (Nelson, 2011). It must be noted, however, that in many species of fishes from diverse families, the main androgen circulating in the blood is not testosterone but rather its metabolite 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), which is more powerful than testosterone for activating sexual and aggressive behaviors (Godwin & Lamm, 2017).
The rare exceptions to this rule concern species displaying a dissociated pattern of reproduction in which spermatogenesis and steroid secretion take place during the summer months and precede by at least three-quarters of a year the period when copulation actually occurs in the following spring (see Crews, 2005, for the best documented example, the red-sided garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis). However, even in these species, the expression of sexual behavior might still depend on endocrine events, including testosterone secretion, but these events take place several months before the expression of the behavior itself (Krohmer, 2013).
Even if part of the effects of testosterone on sexual behavior result from actions in the periphery (changes in the sensitivity to sex-related olfactory, visual or acoustic stimuli, in the effectors of behavior such as penile muscles in rodents or syrinx muscles in songbirds; Nelson, 2011), the most important sites of androgens action on sexual behavior are obviously in the brain and spinal cord. Although the regulatory role of testosterone (or 11-KT) in the activation of male sexual behavior is well established in a wide variety of vertebrate species, the cellular and biochemical mechanisms through which this behavioral activation takes place is still the focus of active research. Interestingly, the response of the brain to androgens is dynamic. It seems to vary in time and from one subject to another since the intensity or frequency of sexual behaviors does not always correlate with the concentration of testosterone in the blood. Many studies have indeed shown that, though significant correlations are often identified between changes in time of hormones and behavior, individual differences in sex steroid plasma concentrations quite frequently do not correlate with differences in sex behavior (e.g., Balthazart, 2017; Balthazart, Deviche, & Hendrick, 1977; Dessi-Fulgheri, Lucarini, & Lupo di Prisco, 1976; Ramenofsky, 1984)). In a foundational study performed before the advent of sensitive assays for hormones, Grunt and Young had already demonstrated that, in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus), individual differences in sexual behavior disappear following castration (sexual behavior progressively vanished), but they are quickly reestablished when castrated subjects are all treated with a same standard dose of exogenous testosterone (Grunt & Young, 1953). The differences between sexually active subjects (studs) and more sluggish ones (duds) similarly does not seem to be induced by differences in plasma testosterone concentrations, based on studies in a variety of species (rats, Rattus norvegicus: Damassa, Smith, Tennent, & Davidson, 1977; and Portillo, Diaz, Retana-Marquez, & Paredes, 2006; guinea pigs, Cavia porcellus: Harding & Feder, 1976; chicken, Gallus domesticus and Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica: Van Krey, Siegel, Balander, & Benoff, 1983; and green anolis lizard, Anolis carolinensis: Neal & Wade, 2007).
This lack of a clear correlation between testosterone concentrations in the blood and the occurrence of hormone-regulated behaviors calls for an analysis of the cellular mechanisms of testosterone action in the brain and how they regulate the activation of male-typical sexual behaviors (Ball & Balthazart, 2008b). Thus, a neuroendocrine perspective rather than a solely endocrine perspective is useful in trying to understand the causal action of steroid hormones on male-typical sexual behaviors. The central action of testosterone is regulated by a variety of independent factors, including changes in intracellular metabolism and in receptor availability, or the modulation of transcriptional activity by co-regulators. The focus here is on these mechanisms mostly in mammals and birds where the most detailed analyses have been conducted among vertebrate species. Among mammalian species, most of the data are derived from rodent studies, though work in humans is considered to the extent it is available. Not covered are the steroid-dependent changes in neurotransmitters activity that mediate changes in sexual behavior since these are described in a specific section on neurochemistry and behavior.
Appetitive and Consummatory Aspects of Sexual Behavior
Most of the cellular research analyzing the neuroendocrine bases of male sexual behavior has been devoted to the consummatory aspects of the behavior (intromission and ejaculation in species with internal fertilization, ejaculation in other species). However, before they copulate, males must be able to attract a female through a variety of courtship behaviors, approach her, and ensure that she is sexually receptive. These different aspects of the interaction with the female correspond to different phases of sexual behavior that have been described by terms such as attractivity, appetitive sexual behavior (ASB), and consummatory sexual behavior (CSB). CSB is usually followed by a period of variable duration during which the male’s interest in the female is greatly reduced or nonexistent (refractory period).
The distinction between the appetitive and the consummatory phases of motivated behaviors was originally made by Charles Sherrington and the European ethologists of the first generation (Konrad Lorenz and Niko Tinbergen) and was introduced to the field of behavioral endocrinology by Frank Beach in the 1950s (Beach, 1956; for a more detailed discussion, see Ball & Balthazart, 2008a). Less attention, however, has been devoted to the endocrine control of ASB, though specific procedures have been developed to independently quantify these two aspects of sexual behavior in a number of species, including rats and Japanese quail. The few studies performed so far indicate that the endocrine controls and brain mechanisms underlying ASB and CSB largely overlap but nevertheless show some degree of specificity. These studies are also considered here.
Sex steroids such as testosterone act on the brain to activate male sexual behavior by molecular mechanisms that are to a large extent similar to those mediating morphological effects of steroids in the periphery. Sex steroid hormones and similar lipophilic compounds such as thyroid hormones can more or less freely enter their target cells, where they are exposed to metabolizing enzymes that will eventually transform them into more active or less active metabolites. The native hormone or its metabolites will then bind to specific intracellular receptors. The hormone-receptor complex will then dimerize and move to the cell nucleus, bind to specific hormone-responsive elements of the DNA, and act as a transcription factor, leading to changes in the transcription of new messenger RNA (mRNA) and synthesis of new proteins that will ultimately alter cell function. These effects are by nature relatively slow and take hours to days to develop (McEwen, 1981, 1994).
Many cellular and behavioral effects of testosterone and its metabolite, estradiol, that were identified more recently are, however, too rapid to be produced by these mechanisms. These fast effects result from brain-specific mechanisms involving direct effects on neuronal membranes or direct interactions with intracellular signaling cascades involving, for example, the phosphorylation of various proteins (Cornil, Ball, & Balthazart, 2012). Less is known about these mechanisms, but the current state of knowledge is also summarized here, as are these different aspects of testosterone action in the brain.
In many cases, testosterone is not the chemical signal that will by itself induce the changes in neuronal physiology leading to activation of behavior. When entering a cell, testosterone can be metabolized by a number of specific enzymes that will transform it into another steroid that can be behaviorally very active or completely inactive. Two main enzymes, aromatase and 5α-reductase, catalyze the transformation of testosterone into behaviorally relevant metabolites, respectively, estradiol-17β and 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT) (Figure 1) (Balthazart, 1989; Celotti, Massa, & Martini, 1979). Another enzyme, called 5β-reductase, catalyzes the transformation of testosterone into 5β-dihydrotestosterone (5β-DHT)(Massa, Cresti, & Martini, 1977) that has no or only minor effects on the expression of sexual behavior (Adkins, 1977; Harding, Sheridan, & Walters, 1983), although minor effects were detected in young domestic chicks (Balthazart & Hirschberg, 1979; Balthazart, Malacarne, & Deviche, 1981). 5β-reduced androgens, however, play a major function in the control of hematopoiesis (Garavini & Cristofori, 1984; Levere, Kappas, & Granick, 1967). Although this enzyme is broadly expressed in all bird species that have been considered and in ectothermic vertebrates, data collected to date suggest that it is present in substantial amount in only a few species of mammals, including hamsters (Callard, Hoffman, Petro, & Ryan, 1979). The significance of this species specificity has never been investigated.
The transformations catalyzed by these three enzymes are thermodynamically irreversible in conditions compatible with life, but a multitude of other enzymes, including hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases, oxido-reductases, and isomerases, are also present in the brain and transform in a reversible manner testosterone or its metabolites into other steroids with diverse behavioral properties. It is beyond the scope of this short review to consider all these possibilities (see Balthazart, 1989 and Feder, 1981, for detail), but two are highlighted here for their behavioral relevance (Figure 1):
– The 17β-hdroxysteroid-dehydrogenase activity (17β-HSD) reversibly transforms testosterone into androstenedione and estradiol-17β into estrone. These metabolites have a behavioral activity that is very similar to that of their parent steroid but cross-react poorly, if at all, with radioimmunoassays or immunoenzymosassays, which are currently the most commonly used detection methods. They will thus in many circumstances escape detection, and so their presence can lead to erroneous conclusions.
– The 3β-hdroxysteroid-dehydrogenase activity (3β-HSD) is reversibly catalyzing the transformation of 5α-DHT into the corresponding 5α-androstane-3β, 17β-diol (5α- 3β, 17β-diol). Interestingly, this diol, which is a metabolite of 5α-DHT, binds to the estrogen receptor and presumably explains why 5α-DHT, which is a pure and potent androgen that cannot be converted back into testosterone nor aromatized, is able to activate some estrogen-dependent responses, including some aspects of male sexual behavior (Baum & Vreeburg, 1976).
Behavioral Effects of Testosterone Metabolites
As already mentioned, many, and perhaps most, behavioral effects of testosterone are produced at the cellular level by locally produced metabolites of the parent steroid. Indeed, testosterone is often referred to as a pro-hormone because its functional effects frequently occur after its metabolism to another steroid. A wealth of information coming from mammalian and nonmammalian studies supports the idea that many effects of testosterone in the brain, including in many species the activation of male sexual behavior, require its transformation into estradiol (for review, see Balthazart, 1989; Celotti et al., 1979; Whalen, Yahr, & Luttge, 1985). These data form the basis of the aromatization hypothesis, which states that effects of testosterone in the brain require its aromatization into an estrogen. A stronger version of this hypothesis, called the estrogen-receptor hypothesis, further proposes that testosterone action is mediated by the binding of the estradiol derived from testosterone aromatization to estrogen receptors (Balthazart, 1989; McEwen, 1981).
The idea that testosterone action on male sexual behavior depends on its central aromatization into an estrogen rests on different types of experimental evidence collected in a wide variety of species, including rats, some strains of mice, hamsters, quail, chicken, and ring doves:
– Aromatase is largely expressed in brain areas that control male sexual behavior, such as the medial preoptic area and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and amygdala (Roselli, Horton, & Resko, 1985; Schumacher & Balthazart, 1987).
– Aromatizable androgens such as testosterone or androstenedione activate male copulatory behavior, while non aromatizable androgens such as 5α-DHT and the derived diols have no or only weak effects (Adkins, Boop, Koutnik, Morris, & Pniewski, 1980; Harding et al., 1983; Whalen & DeBold, 1974; Whalen & Luttge, 1971).
– Estrogens themselves are able to restore most aspects of copulatory behavior in castrated males (see Celotti et al., 1979 for review; hundreds of references are available).
– Antiestrogens such as tamoxifen or nitromifene citrate (CI-628) or ICI-182780 block the testosterone-induced male sexual behavior (e.g., Adkins & Nock, 1976; Alexandre & Balthazart, 1986; Beyer, Morali, Naftolin, Larsson, & Perez-Palacios, 1976).
– Aromatase inhibitors such as androstatrienedione (ATD), Vorozole™ (also known as R76713 or 6-[(4-chlorophenyl)(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)methyl]-1-methyl-1H-benzotriazole) or Fadrozole™ inhibitor completely block the activating effects of testosterone on male sexual behavior (Adkins et al., 1980; Alexandre & Balthazart, 1986; Balthazart, Evrard, & Surlemont, 1990; Christensen & Clemens, 1975). The specificity of these inhibitions has been confirmed by showing that (a) aromatase inhibitors do not block behaviors activated by estrogens and (b) the blockade induced by aromatase inhibitors can be reversed by the concomitant injection of an estrogen.
Together these data clearly support the aromatization hypothesis and the estrogen-receptor hypothesis in the context of the activation of male sexual behavior. This, however, does not mean that androgens themselves (testosterone or 5α-DHT) do not affect male behavior. It is indeed clear that in many species:
– Consummatory behavior in mammals is dependent on nuclei in the spinal cord that innervate muscles to facilitate erections, such as the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus (SNB) of rats that is homologous to Onuf’s nucleus in humans (Matusda et al., 2008). This androgen-sensitive, sexually dimorphic nucleus innervates striated perineal muscles attached to the base of the penis, which are themselves also androgen sensitive (Matusda et al., 2008). Circulating androgens and androgenic metabolites such as 5α-DHT acting in adulthood (but not estrogenic metabolites) are necessary to maintain morphological aspects of this nucleus and its muscle targets to ensure successful functioning of male sexual behavior (Verhovshek et al., 2010)
– Neurons in the upper lumbar spinal cord that express gastrin-releasing peptide project to lower lumbar regions controlling erections as well as ejaculations in male rats (Sakamoto et al., 2008). This system of neurons is vestigial in females and requires androgens during ontogeny to develop the male-like phenotype and retains some androgen responsitivity in adulthood (Sakamoto et al., 2008).
– In contrast to actions in the spinal cord, 5α-DHT has a weak but nevertheless significant effect on copulatory behavior in some species. Actually, in some species, estrogens apparently play little or no role in the activation of male sexual behavior, and this behavior is mostly activated by nonaromatizable androgens such as 5α-DHT acting via binding to androgen receptor proteins. This is the case, for example, in guinea pigs, Cavia porcellus (Alsum & Goy, 1974), hamsters, Mesocricvetus auratus (Whalen & DeBold, 1974), rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus (Agmo & Södersten, 1975), rhesus monkeys, Macaca mulatta (Phoenix, 1974), and some strains of mice, Mus musculus (Luttge & Hall, 1973).
– Antiandrogens, though less effective than the antiestrogens, are nevertheless able to significantly diminish testosterone-induced male behaviors in some species (Alexandre & Balthazart, 1986).
– Finally and most importantly, in multiple species nonaromatizable androgens synergize with low doses of estrogens to fully restore all aspects of male-typical behavior (Adkins et al., 1980; Baum & Vreeburg, 1973; for additional references, see Balthazart, 1989; Martini, 1982). Many experiments have indeed shown that the behavioral activity of low doses of estrogens is markedly enhanced by a concurrent treatment with a nonaromatizable androgen such as 5α-DHT. This synergism between androgens and estrogens has been reported in multiple species, even if the precise mechanism underlying this synergism has not been identified so far (see Balthazart, 1989, for an extensive discussion). This question has received little attention in recent years. It has been suggested that the synergism between androgens and estrogens could result from the cross-reactivity of one of the steroids involved with the other receptor (e.g., of R1881 binding to estrogen receptor) or that estrogens decrease the spontaneously very active catabolism of 5α-DHT or that 5α-DHT increases the action of estradiol via its metabolism to 5α- 3β, 17β-diol and binding of this diol to the estrogen receptors. But none of these explanations seems to be able to explain all observations. A recent study showed that the nonaromatizable androgen 6α-fluorotestosterone, which also acts as an aromatase inhibitor, is able to activate male copulatory behavior in rats and that this effect is blocked by two different aromatase inhibitors (ATD and Fadrozole). This suggests that 6α-fluorotestosterone activates behavior by some unknown mechanism potentially involving an action of aromatase independent from the production of estrogens (Yahr, 2015). The question of the steroid specificity in sex behavior activation is no longer of great interest to most scientists, who now rather focus on understanding what sort of gene expression results from steroid action to activate behavior. Nonetheless, important questions about steroid specificity remain unanswered. The fact that pro-hormones like testosterone can be metabolized to estrogenic and androgenic steroids and have tissue-specific effects tell us a lot about the different levels of regulation that can occur when considering the hormonal regulation of behavior. Metabolism to a steroid that binds to a receptor with a higher affinity than the parent compound essentially amplifies the effect of a hormone, while metabolism to an inactive compound dissipates any biological effect.
Androgens Versus Estrogens in the Activation of Human Male Sexual Behavior
The relative role of androgens and estrogens in the activation of sexual behavior in male humans is at present a controversial topic. This situation is due in part because direct experimentation is obviously difficult or impossible for ethical reasons. A variety of clinical studies, however, clearly indicate that in hypogonadal men, treatment with exogenous testosterone increases sexual motivation and copulatory activity (Davidson, Camargo, & Smith, 1979; Snyder et al., 2000; Wang et al., 2000). Whether these effects are mediated by testosterone acting as an androgen or by conversion to an estrogen has been a more difficult question to address.
Some studies initially suggested that in men, as in rhesus monkeys, the activation of sexual behavior and sexual motivation depends mostly on the action of androgens acting as such on androgen receptors. One suggestive study was based on the pharmacological manipulation of testosterone and/or estrogens availability in subjects who were functionally castrated by a chronic treatment suppressing gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion (Bagatell, Heiman, Rivier, & Bremner, 1994). GnRH is produced by the hypothalamus and stimulates the synthesis of the two gonadotropic hormones (luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone) in the pituitary gland. These in turn act on the testes to activate the secretion of testosterone. In the Bagatell study, men were chronically treated with a GnRH antagonist (receptor blocker), so that plasma concentrations of testosterone and estradiol dropped rapidly and treated subjects observed a strong parallel decrease of their interest in sex. They had fewer sexual fantasies, masturbated less often, and the frequency of their sexual activities decreased. A fraction of these subjects were simultaneously treated with testosterone, which was apparently sufficient to maintain their sexual motivation and performance (Bagatell et al., 1994). The simultaneous treatment of these testosterone-treated subjects with a relatively weak aromatase inhibitor (Testolactone) that decreased by about 65% the circulating concentration of estradiol had apparently no effect on the behavioral measures. However, this aromatase inhibition was only partial, and more powerful aromatase inhibitors have now become available.
More recent studies indicate, in contrast, a prominent role of estrogens. A case study of a man expressing a mutation of the aromatase gene that resulted in a decrease in aromatase expression and in sexual motivation revealed a major improvement in sexual motivation and performance when the man was treated with estradiol combined with testosterone but not when treated with testosterone alone (Carani et al., 2005; Carani, Rochira, Faustini-Fustini, Balestrieri, & Granata, 1999).
Another large study including several hundred subjects employed a strategy similar to Bagatelle et al. and functionally castrated subjects but by treating them chronically with a GnRH agonist, goserilin acetate (Finkelstein et al., 2013). This chronic treatment desensitizes the GnRH receptors in the pituitary and after a few days produces a similar inhibition of testosterone secretion. Some of the subjects were then treated in parallel with increasing doses of testosterone (198 subjects in total). Another group of 202 subjects was treated with the GnRH agonist in combination with testosterone in association with the aromatase inhibitor anastozole (=Arimidex™) (Figure 2). Sexual behavior was assessed by periodic questionnaires asking participants to compare their sex drive (motivation) and erectile capacity (probability of getting an erection and reaching orgasm) to the same aspects before the study began.
The inhibition of testosterone secretion caused by the GnRH suppression resulted in a decline of both sexual motivation and sexual performance. This decline was counteracted in a dose-dependent manner by treatments with increasing doses of testosterone. However, concurrent administration of the aromatase inhibitor anastrozole markedly inhibited these effects of testosterone. This study, based on very large samples of subjects, clearly indicates that the activational effects of testosterone on both motivational and performance aspects of sexual behavior in the human male are, like in many animal models, mediated largely by the aromatization of the steroid into an estrogen (Finkelstein et al., 2013).
Changes in the Activity of Testosterone Metabolizing Enzymes
A host of studies have analyzed the changes in the activity of testosterone metabolizing enzymes in a variety of physiological situations in multiple species of vertebrates. These studies have demonstrated that the ratio of active versus inactive testosterone metabolites that are produced in the brain and in peripheral structures can be affected by a host of factors including the sex, age, or hormonal condition of the subjects, as well as by other external factors such as stress, photoperiod, and season. These changes in enzymatic activities provide a range of mechanisms that potentially modulate the activation of behaviors (see Balthazart, 1989, for a review in connection with sexual behavior).
It is, for example, well established that in many species, aromatase activity in the preoptic area is significantly higher in males than in females. This is namely the case in rats (Roselli, 1991) and in Japanese quail (Schumacher & Balthazart, 1986). Given that in these species, the activation of male sexual behavior is largely mediated at the cellular level by the estrogens produced by aromatization of testosterone in the preoptic area, this enzymatic sex difference leading to a more active production of estrogens in males than in females must contribute to the explanation as to why male-typical copulatory patterns are difficult, if not impossible, to activate in females (Adkins, 1975; Becker, Breedlove, Crews, & McCarthy, 2002; McCarthy, De Vries, & Forger, 2009; Nelson, 2011). This is not, however, the only cause for the behavioral sex difference since a treatment with exogenous estradiol, which should bypass the rate-limiting enzymatic activity, is still unable to activate male-typical sexual behavior in females (e.g., in quail: Schumacher & Balthazart, 1983).
Similarly, it has been shown that the 5β-reductase activity is extremely high in the brain of Japanese quail during the embryonic and early postnatal life. This activity decreases in a progressive manner between embryonic days 9 to 17 (Balthazart & Ottinger, 1984), and this decrease continues during the first 5 weeks after hatching (Balthazart & Schumacher, 1984). In contrast, the 5β-reductase activity in the cloacal gland decreases during embryonic life, but it reaches low values at hatching and no further decrease is observed afterward (Balthazart & Ottinger, 1984; Balthazart & Schumacher, 1984). As 5β-reduced metabolites of testosterone are inactive androgens, it has been suggested that the decrease of 5β-reductase activity with age corresponds to a potentiation of the effects of testosterone at the level of the brain but not in the periphery. This hypothesis was tested by comparing the relative potencies of 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT), which cannot be converted to 5β-reduced metabolites, and testosterone in their ability to induce crowing in young 7-day-old gonadectomized quail (Balthazart, Schumacher, & Malacarne, 1984). The promotion of cloacal gland growth by these treatments was also assessed as a control since there are no age-related changes in 5β-reductase in this organ. Silastic implants of various lengths (2.5, 5 or 10 mm) containing 5α-DHT were significantly more effective at stimulating crowing than similar implants filled with testosterone, but, in contrast, there was no difference in their potency at inducing cloacal gland growth. These results thus support the idea that testosterone action is regulated by the changes in activity of the inactivating enzyme 5β-reductase (Hutchison & Steimer, 1981).
Rapid Regulation of Enzymes
It was initially thought that changes in the activity of these testosterone-metabolizing enzymes were exclusively the result of changes in the concentration of the enzymatic proteins. It was, for example, clearly established that the treatment with testosterone of castrated rats (Rattus norvegicus), ring doves (Streptopelia risoria), or quail (Coturnix japonica) induces a four- to five fold increase in preoptic aromatase activity (Roselli et al., 1985; Schumacher & Balthazart, 1986; Steimer & Hutchison, 1981). This is paralleled by a similar increase in the corresponding mRNA, suggesting that the change results from an increased transcription of the gene CYP19A coding for aromatase (Balthazart & Foidart, 1993). As such, these effects based on changes in transcription are relatively slow and only become detectable after several hours or even days (e.g., Balthazart, Foidart, & Hendrick, 1990).
Work performed during the last two decades revealed, however, that more rapid adjustments of these enzymatic activities are also possible. This is best documented for aromatase. It was shown that the activity of this enzyme is rapidly (within 5–10 min) downregulated in brain homogenates by exposure to conditions that stimulate phosphorylations (increased concentrations of ATP, Ca++ and Mg++; see (Balthazart, Baillien, Charlier, & Ball, 2003; Comito, Pradhan, Karleen, & Schlinger, 2015; Cornil, et al., 2012)) and this inhibition was blocked by kinase inhibitors confirming that the enzymatic inhibition results from protein phosphorylations (Balthazart et al., 2003). Subsequent studies based on cells transfected with the human aromatase gene confirmed that the phosphorylations that inhibit aromatase activity concern the aromatase protein itself, but additional work employing an experimental strategy of site-directed mutagenesis failed to identify the specific amino acid that controls this process, suggesting that multiple residues are probably implicated. Similar rapid changes in aromatase activity were also described in preoptic explants maintained in vitro after treatments that modify the intracellular Ca++ concentration (Balthazart, Baillien, & Ball, 2001; Balthazart et al., 2003) or after exposure to agonists of glutamate receptors of the kainate or AMPA subtypes (Balthazart, Baillien, & Ball, 2006). Preoptic aromatase activity of male quail is also decreased within 5 minutes following socio-sexual interactions with a female (Cornil et al., 2005; de Bournonville, Dickens, Ball, Balthazart, & Cornil, 2013), but it increases just as rapidly (5 min) after exposure to a chronic restraint stress (Dickens, Cornil, & Balthazart, 2011). These effects are anatomically specific (present in some brain nuclei but not others) and transient: they usually disappear after 30–120 min. They are associated with and presumably caused, at least in part, by an increased extracellular concentration of glutamate in the preoptic area (de Bournonville et al., 2017). These rapid changes in aromatase activity are thus likely to induce similarly rapid changes in estrogen concentration in the preoptic area that might be responsible for their rapid membrane-initiated effects on sexual behavior (Cornil, Ball, & Balthazart, 2006) described later.
These rapid enzymatic changes are not limited to aromatase but also concern another enzyme located upstream in the synthetic pathway producing sex steroids, the 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-Δ4 isomerase (3β-HSD). This enzyme namely catalyzes the transformation of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) into androstenedione, which can then be metabolized into testosterone and subsequently estradiol. It was known that this enzyme plays a key role in the control of territorial aggression during the autumn and winter in song sparrows, Melospiza melodia (Wingfield & Hahn, 1994). In this species, territorial aggression indeed remains elevated during most of the year even during periods when circulating concentrations of testosterone and estradiol are undetectable. DHEA of adrenal origin remains present, however, and is transformed in the brain by the 3β-HSD activity into active androgens and estrogens that activate territorial behavior. Accordingly, this behavior is inhibited by a combined treatment with an antiandrogen and an aromatase inhibitor (Soma, Sullivan, & Wingfield, 1999; Soma et al., 2000). The enzyme is present in the brain year round even if its activity slowly increases between the breeding and nonbreeding season (Pradhan et al., 2010; Soma, Alday, Hau, & Schlinger, 2004). Other studies indicate that its activity can be rapidly inhibited by acute restraint stress (Soma et al., 2004) or by estradiol (Pradhan, Yu, & Soma, 2008). Most interestingly, the 3β-HSD activity is increased within 30 min by a simulated territorial intrusion (Pradhan et al., 2010). This increase was positively correlated with the time spent in close proximity to the intruder decoy, suggesting that the enzymatic change relates to and is potentially induced by the behavioral interaction. The increased activity is thus potentially producing increased amounts of testosterone and estradiol that could support, in the short-term, expression of aggressive behavior.
Thus, evidence is accumulating to demonstrate that steroid production and metabolism can be modulated within minutes and that these changes in activity are under the control of the activity of various neurotransmitters, in particular glutamate (Balthazart et al., 2006; Do Rego et al., 2009; Remage-Healey, Maidment, & Schlinger, 2008).
Androgen and Estrogen Receptors
The effects of sex steroids on behavior are classically thought to be mediated by the steroid binding to intracellular receptors, which when occupied dimerize and translocate to the nucleus where they bind to specific loci on the DNA (specific response elements or others) and modulate transcription of target genes. These receptors are characterized by their specificity (they only bind one class of steroids), high affinity (binding affinity has a Kd in the low nanomolar range), and limited capacity (they are rapidly saturated in the presence of nanomolar or even femtomolar concentrations of steroids; see Blaustein & Olster, 1989; McEwen & Alves, 1999).
The neuroanatomical distribution of high-affinity binding sites (receptors) for androgens (AR), estrogens (ER), and progestagens (PR) is remarkably consistent among vertebrate species. This distribution was initially mapped in the 1970s using in vivo autoradiographic techniques (Morrell, Kelley, & Pfaff, 1975; Stumpf & Sar, 1976). More recently, this distribution was reanalyzed by immunocytochemical studies employing mono- or polyclonal antibodies against the steroid receptors molecules. These receptors have also been cloned and sequenced in many species, and probes have been synthesized and used to localize the corresponding mRNA by in situ hybridization. All these different experimental approaches have generally produced results that are in good agreement.
Cells that express a high density of receptors for sex steroids are localized mainly in the medial preoptic area, the hypothalamus (anterior hypothalamic area, ventromedial nucleus, tuberal hypothalamus), telencephalic structures that are part of the limbic system (amygdala, lateral septum, bed nucleus of stria terminalis), and specific parts of the mesencephalon (optic tectum). A schematic presentation of this distribution is shown in Figure 3A. A similar distribution has been observed among a wide range of vertebrates ranging from fishes to mammals (Kelley & Pfaff, 1978; Morrell & Pfaff, 1978). Furthermore, the anatomical distribution of androgen-concentrating cells is in general similar to that of the estrogen-concentrating cells. However, differences have been observed in the intensity and number of labeled cells, as well as in their precise distribution within a given nucleus. These species-specific and steroid-specific features are, however, beyond the scope of the present summary.
A species-specific distribution has additionally been observed in vertebrate species that produce vocalizations in the context of reproduction (Figure 3B). For example, in songbirds such as zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) and canaries (Serinus canaria), a network of neurochemically specialized brain nuclei controls both the learning and the production of song (Nottebohm, Stokes, & Leonard, 1976). Singing behavior is regulated by testosterone and its metabolite estradiol. Accordingly, most nuclei in the so-called song control system (located in areas homologous to the cortex in the avian telencephalon as well as the mesencephalon and brainstem) contain androgen and for some of them estrogen receptors (Arnold, Nottebohm, & Pfaff, 1976) (for more recent reviews, see Ziegler & Marler, 2008). This presence of androgen receptors in telencephalic nuclei outside the limbic system is unusual among vertebrates and is functionally related to singing. Steroids have a variety of effects on song behavior, and these effects have recently been dissected (Alward, Rouse, Balthazart, & Ball, 2017). Testosterone action in the preoptic region activates increases in song rate (Alward, Balthazart, & Ball, 2013), while steroid hormone action in the song control nuclei and at the syrinx (the vocal production organ) effect different aspects of song quality, including the degree of stereotypy and song structure (Alward, Madison, Gravley, & Ball, 2016; Alward, Madison, Parker, & Balthazart, 2016).
Specializations related to the hormonal regulation of vocal behavior have also been described in the midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus) and several species of amphibians such as the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) (see Ball & Balthazart, 2009). It should also be noted that the very discrete localization of sex steroid receptors that had initially been detected by autoradiography is actually broader: the more sensitive techniques such as in situ hybridization have shown that many additional brain areas contain cells expressing these receptors at low densities.
Sex steroids action in the brain is related to the control of various functions, including neuroplasticity, cognition, tumor growth, and behavior. Therefore, only subsets of the sex steroids binding sites in the brain are implicated in the control of male sexual behavior. These sites have been identified by a combination of lesion experiments and of stereotaxic implantation of steroids directly in the brain of castrated subjects (Alward et al., 2017; Pfaff, 1980).
The medial part of the preoptic area is clearly a critical and sufficient site for activation by testosterone (or its metabolite estradiol) of male sexual behaviors (Balthazart & Ball, 2007; Tobet & Fox, 1992). This appears to be true in all species that have been tested in all classes of vertebrates from fishes to mammals. Sexually inactive castrated males recover at a rate of sexual activity that is similar or equal to the level seen in gonad-intact, sexually mature males when implanted with testosterone in this brain area. Additional sites are also implicated and form the so-called social behavior network (Goodson, 2005; Newman, 1999; O’Connell & Hofmann, 2011). For example, androgen action in the septum, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and amygdala modulate the expression of male sexual behavior, even if the action of androgens in the preoptic area alone is sufficient to activate this behavior in many cases.
The activation of these nuclear receptors by testosterone or estradiol modulates the transcription of a multitude of genes that encode for a variety of receptors (for neurotransmitters, for neuropeptides, for steroids themselves) and enzymes that control the synthesis or catabolism of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, as well as protein (neuro)hormones themselves. These changes are confined to the anatomically specific sites that express steroid receptors and ultimately result in specific changes in neural activity and behavior.
With the advent of molecular biology techniques, a second estrogen receptor (ER) was also cloned first in rats (Kuiper, Enmark, Pelto-Huikko, Nilsson, & Gustafsson, 1996) and then in humans (Mosselman, Polman, & Dijkema, 1996) and multiple other species including birds (Foidart, Lakaye, Grisar, Ball, & Balthazart, 1999). It was named ERβ to distinguish it from the initial ER now relabeled ERα. Targeted disruptions (knock-out or KO) of ERα confirmed that this receptor plays key roles in the control of male sexual and aggressive behavior (Ogawa, Lubahn, Korach, & Pfaff, 1997), even if the importance of the behavioral effects varied from one study to another (Rissman, Wersinger, Taylor, & Lubahn, 1997). ERβ was initially thought to be of lesser importance (Ogawa et al., 1999). These initial KO models were, however, found to be imperfect, and a reanalysis of these questions with better or more complete disruptions of ERα ανδ ERβ have led researchers to reevaluate this conclusion and to suggest that both ER play specific roles in the control of male sexual behavior (Ogawa et al., 2000). Specific behavioral effects of global AR inactivation such as is seen in rats bearing the testicular feminizing (tfm) mutation or in ARKO mice were difficult to evaluate since these subjects lacked the male-typical genitalia, thus preventing them from engaging in normal intromissive behavior (Ono, Geller, & Lai, 1974; Sato et al., 2004).
More recently, new transgenic models that allow investigators to disrupt the expression of sex steroid receptors specifically in the brain, or in neurons or even in neurons within specific brain regions, have become available, and they now permit a more refined dissection of the specific role of each receptor region by region (e.g., Naule et al., 2016; Raskin et al., 2009; Swift-Gallant, Coome, Srinivasan, & Monks, 2016; Swift-Gallant & Monks, 2017).
Evidence also exists that the activation of male-typical sexual behaviors and aggression by androgens and their metabolites can be regulated by progesterone acting via progesterone receptors (e.g., Phelps, Lydon, O’Malley, & Crews, 1998). The exact role of endogenous progesterone is not clear in all cases, but mice with targeted disruption (i.e. knock-out) of the progesterone receptor are much less responsive to the androgenic facilitation of male-typical sexual behaviors (Phelps et al., 1998). More recent studies in mice with selective ablation, using genetic techniques, of a relatively small set of cells expressing progesterone receptors only in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus have also indicated that these progesterone-expressing cells are necessary for the hormonal activation of male-typical sexual behaviors (Yang et al., 2013). A circuitry analysis integrating these actions of progesterone with the actions of androgens and their metabolites on the regulation of male-typical sexual behaviors remains to be completed.
Steroid Receptor Co-Regulators
When steroid receptors were discovered and their mechanism of action as transcription factors was initially elucidated, this mechanism seemed relatively simple. The activated receptor was binding to specific sites of the DNA and in this way activated the transcription of specific target genes (Jensen et al., 1968). A number of physiological situations were later discovered where variation in the behavioral response to steroid hormones was not explained by variation in the systemic concentrations of the steroid. This indicated that variation in responsiveness of the brain targets of the steroid had to be considered (O’Malley & Tsai, 1992). These changes in responsiveness are mediated in the case of testosterone by changes in intracellular metabolism and for all steroids by changes in steroid receptor expression. In addition, it has now become clear that the transcriptional activity of steroid receptors can also be modulated by cofactors that constitute a limiting factor in some physiological situations. The first of these cofactors was identified in the laboratory of Bert O’Malley (Onate, Tsai, Tsai, & O’Malley, 1995) and was called steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC1). Two additional members of this protein family were later identified and labeled by multiple names until an agreement was reached to call them SRC2 and SRC3 (see Charlier & Balthazart, 2005, for references). The role of these three proteins in the control of male (and also female) sexual behavior has been deciphered to some extent and will be briefly reviewed here. Note, however, that SRCs are only part of a large family of proteins that act as steroid receptor co-regulators (co-activators or co-repressors) that includes hundreds of members (McKenna, Nawaz, Tsai, Tsai, & O’Malley, 1998; McKenna & O’Malley, 2002).
Co-activators of the SRC family enhance target gene transcription by remodeling the chromatin (through histone acetylation and methylation) and recruiting/stabilizing the general transcription machinery (see Charlier & Balthazart, 2005; McKenna & O’Malley, 2002, for review). They are broadly expressed throughout the body, including the brain where expression is densest in nuclei that also express sex steroid receptors (for androgens, estrogens, and progestins) such as the medial preoptic area, the arcuate and ventromedial nuclei of the hypothalamus in rats (Meijer, Steenbergen, & De Kloet, 2000) as well as in quail (Charlier, Lakaye, Ball, & Balthazart, 2002; Niessen, Balthazart, Ball, & Charlier, 2011) (Figure 4). Interestingly, in songbirds such as zebra finch and canary, expression of SRC1 and of another steroid receptor co-activator, CBP (cAMP response element binding protein-binding protein) is additionally very dense in the telencephalic steroid-sensitive song control nuclei such as HVC (Auger & Ball, 2002; Auger, Bentley, Auger, Ramamurthy, & Ball, 2002).
The expression of the co-activators is itself regulated by a variety of factors, including thyroid and sex steroid hormones (Charlier & Balthazart, 2005; McKenna & O’Malley, 2002). In particular, ovariectomy in female rats decreases SRC1 expression in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, and estrogens increase their expression in peripubertal male hamsters. SRC1 expression is also regulated in a complex manner by testosterone in male quail. As a consequence, numerous sex differences in the expression of these co-activators have also been reported (for a review see Charlier & Balthazart, 2005).
The role of these co-activators in the control of physiology and more specifically male sexual behavior has been studied by two different approaches: analysis of the phenotype in complete knock-out mice models (i.e., targeted disruption of the gene) and analysis of the effects of treatment with antisense oligonucleotides. Surprisingly, full knock-out mice for SRC1 only showed limited changes in their phenotype. For example, SRC1 knock-out male and female mice were fertile (Xu et al., 1998), females were fully feminized, and males had a normal development of androgen-dependent motoneurons of the spinal bulbocavernosus nucleus (Monks, Xu, O’Malley, & Jordan, 2003). However, SRC2 knock-out mice showed major deficits in the male and female reproductive tracts and males were hypofertile (Gehin et al., 2002). The limited effects of SRC1 inactivation presumably relates to an adaptive developmental mechanism by which SRC2 expression is upregulated in the brain of mice with a SRC1 knock-out (Xu et al., 1998).
To avoid this adaptive compensation, the antisense technique was used to specifically decrease SRC1 or SRC2 in specific brain regions; these experiments clearly demonstrated that these co-activators are critical for the activation by sex steroids of female and male sexual behavior. For example, inhibition of SRC1 largely blocked the development of male reproductive behavior and male-typical brain structures in female rats treated with exogenous testosterone (Auger, Tetel, & McCarthy, 2000). The activation of female-typical sexual behavior in adult female rats is also inhibited by antisense treatments decreasing SCR1 expression (Apostolakis, Ramamurphy, Zhou, Oñate, & O’Malley, 2002; Molenda, Griffin, Auger, McCarthy, & Tetel, 2002), a finding in agreement with the observation that neurons expressing estradiol or progesterone receptors also densely express SRC1 and SRC1 associated with these receptors (Molenda-Figueira et al., 2008; Tetel, Siegal, & Murphy, 2007). Similarly, in castrated male quail, the inhibition of either SRC1 or SRC2 expression by daily injection in the third ventricle of locked nucleotide acid-based antisense inhibited the activation by exogenous testosterone of all androgen- and estrogen-dependent aspects of male-typical sexual behavior (Charlier, Ball, & Balthazart, 2005; Niessen et al., 2011). These treatments blocking SRC1 or SRC2 expression also downregulated male-typical neuroanatomical features such as the volume of the medial preoptic nucleus, the number of cells expressing aromatase in this nucleus, and the density of vasotocinergic fibers in this brain area (Charlier et al., 2005; Niessen et al., 2011).
Steroid co-activators of the SRC family thus appear to play an important role in modulating the sex steroid action of male behavior and explaining the pleiotropic effects of these steroids on various physiological and behavioral responses (Charlier, Seredynski, Niessen, & Balthazart, 2012; Tetel, Auger, & Charlier, 2009). It is very likely that other co-activators and co-repressors are playing similar roles. Their function is now beginning to be understood at the cellular and biochemical level, but much work remains to be done to evaluate their implication at the organismal level and in particular in the control of male sexual behavior.
Membrane Initiated Action of Sex Steroids and Behavior
The steroid-induced behavioral changes described so far usually take place after latencies extending from a few hours to several days. Such a time course can explain changes in reproductive behavior that are observed over months during the annual cycle, with animals alternating between a season of active reproduction and a period of sexual quiescence when no sexual behavior is usually observed.
Faster actions of steroids have also been identified at the cellular level, suggesting that these hormones may also act via fundamentally different mechanisms. It was noted decades ago that estradiol is able to alter the excitability of GnRH neurons in culture within seconds of their application (Kelly, Moss, & Dudley, 1976). Similar observations have been made in a large number of experimental models (McEwen, 1994; Ronnekleiv & Kelly, 2002; Schumacher, 1990). Estrogens (and to a lesser extent testosterone) are thus able to exert effects that are too rapid (seconds to minutes) to be mediated through the activation of protein synthesis. These rapid effects are generally initiated by steroids acting at the cell membrane, resulting in the activation of a wide variety of intracellular signaling pathways. In some cases, these changes in intracellular physiology will also result after longer latencies in changes in gene transcription, usually referred to as indirect genomic effects.
Multiple membrane estrogen receptors (ER) that can potentially mediate these rapid effects have been identified. The classical nuclear receptors for estrogens (ERα and β) are able to associate with the cell membrane and generate intracellular signals through association with G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) such as the metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR) (Micevych & Dominguez, 2009). Additionally, novel membrane receptors such as GPR30 and two putative membrane receptors characterized by their binding properties but that have so far not been isolated, Gq-mER or ER-X, have also been proposed as candidates for mediating membrane actions of estrogens (Filardo & Thomas, 2005; Roepke, Qiu, Bosch, Ronnekleiv, & Kelly, 2009; Toran-Allerand et al., 2002). Intracellular signaling pathways activated by these receptors result in changes in calcium concentrations or phosphorylations of enzymes or receptors, leading, for example, to changes in enzymatic activities or receptor uncoupling from their effectors. These changes in cellular (neuronal) function have also an impact at the organismal level and in particular on behavior. During the last two decades, experimental evidence has accumulated, demonstrating that estrogens acutely influence processes such as pain or cognition but also aggressive and sexual behaviors (for a review, see Cornil, Ball, & Balthazart, 2012).
To our knowledge, the first study demonstrating such rapid effects of estrogens on male sexual behavior concerned castrated male rats (Rattus norvegicus) in which it was demonstrated that a subcutaneous injection of 17β-estradiol stimulates mounts and anogenital investigations within 35 min (Cross & Roselli, 1999). Subsequent studies demonstrated that a single injection of 17β-estradiol facilitates the expression of most aspects of male sexual behavior within 10–15 min in quail (Coturnix japonica: Cornil, Dalla, Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Baillien, & Balthazart, 2006) and mice (Mus musculus: Taziaux, Keller, Bakker, & Balthazart, 2007). The processing of species-specific auditory stimuli (male conspecific song) is also modulated within minutes by estradiol action in the telencephalic auditory areas of one songbird species, the zebra finch, Taeniopygia gutata (Remage-Healey, Dong, Chao, & Schlinger, 2012; Remage-Healey et al., 2008). The existence of such rapid behavioral effects of estradiol seems to be an ancient feature in vertebrates since they are also observed in fishes. Injection of estradiol indeed modulates within minutes the production of courtship vocalization in the plainfin midshipman fish, P. notatus (Remage-Healey & Bass, 2004).
Detailed studies in quail have demonstrated that estrogens produced locally in the brain (neuroestrogens) acutely modulate the expression of male sexual motivation (Seredynski, Balthazart, Christophe, Ball, & Cornil, 2013). The intracerebroventicular (i.c.v.) injection of estradiol markedly increased, within minutes, the expression of two measures of sexual motivation: the rhythmic cloacal sphincter movements and the learned social proximity response in subjects whose endogenous estrogens production had been depleted by a chronic treatment with an aromatase inhibitor. This effect was mimicked by membrane-impermeable analogs of estradiol, indicating that it is initiated via actions at the cell membrane. Conversely, blocking estrogen action or estrogen synthesis by a single i.c.v. injection of an estrogen receptor antagonist or of an aromatase inhibitor, respectively, acutely decreased these measures of sexual motivation within 15–30 min. Interestingly, these treatments did not affect the copulatory performance of the birds at least when tested in a small arena where copulation occurs almost reflexively and the male does not have to search for and chase the female.
A follow-up series of studies based on the i.c.v. acute injection procedure showed that a single injection of DPN, a specific ERβ-specific agonist, and to a lesser extent 17α-estradiol, possibly acting through ER-X, prevented the decrease in sexual motivation induced by an acute injection of the aromatase inhibitor Vorozole™ (Seredynski, Balthazart, Ball, & Cornil, 2015) (Figure 5). In contrast, drugs targeting ERα (the agonist PPT and the antagonist MPP), GPR30 (the agonist G1 and the antagonist G15), and the Gq-mER (the agonist STX) were without effect. The rapid stimulation of sexual motivation by estrogens acting via ERβ seems to be mediated by a transactivation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor type 1a (mGluR1a). The mGluR1a antagonist, LY367385, significantly inhibited the measure of sexual motivation when injected alone, and most importantly it blocked the effects of estradiol or DPN on this response (Seredynski et al., 2015). This type of interaction between a nuclear ER located at the membrane and a mGluR had been previously identified in the control of sexual behavior in female rats (Dewing et al., 2007; Meitzen et al., 2013), even if different receptor subtypes were implicated in this case.
Estradiol has thus evolved specific mechanisms to regulate different components of male sexual behavior (motivation vs. performance) in distinct temporal domains (long- vs. short-term). This division between two types of actions (i.e., motivation mediated by short-term actions of estradiol and performance mediated by long-term actions of estradiol) may generalize to other behavioral systems regulated by estrogens, including possibly the response to and abuse of drugs such as amphetamine and cocaine, the control of auditory processing and singing behavior in songbirds, or aspects of learning and memory. This idea of the complementary actions of estrogens at different time domains has been integrated into the dual action hypothesis of estrogen action presented in detail elsewhere (Cornil, Ball, & Balthazart, 2015).
The neuroendocrine mechanisms that control male sexual behavior have been intensively investigated during the past 150 years, especially since purified testosterone became available at the beginning of the 20th century. The mechanisms of intracellular action of sex steroids have been to a large extent elucidated, and the mechanisms that have been identified help explain the seasonal variations as well as, in a more limited number of cases, the individual differences in behavior. However, many specific questions remain open, and the diversity of actions in different species are yet to be discovered. Two main groups of new questions have, however, emerged.
First, it has been established that the transcriptional activity of sex steroids requires the recruitment of co-activators and co-repressors. We now know that the family of proteins is very large (more than 300 members are listed in the Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas (NURSA); see https://www.nursa.org/nursa/molecules/index.jsf; McKenna et al., 2009), and only a few of them (SRC1-2 and CBP) have been studied in the context of behavior control. A whole new field of investigations thus remains open. A related question that is also wide open is to identify the genes that are being transcribed by steroid binding to their cognate receptors and to describe their functional consequences.
On another front, it has been demonstrated that many effects of testosterone on male sexual behavior are mediated by its metabolite estradiol produced directly in the brain (neuroestrogens). Slow long-term genomic actions of estrogens on behavior are reasonably well understood, but it has more recently become clear that estrogens also participate in the control of male behavior through faster mechanisms initiated by their interaction with membrane receptors. It is currently difficult to assess the importance of these rapid effects of steroids on behavior and to determine how widespread they are since few examples only have been studied in some detail. How these two types of steroid actions interact is also not clear as well as why they have evolved to control complementary aspects of behavior in two different time domains?
Discovery of the rapid actions of estrogens on reproductive behaviors suggests that, in this context, estradiol displays most, if not all, functional characteristics of a neurotransmitter or at least a neuromodulator and thus can regulate short-term changes in behavior. This notion is further supported by the discovery of rapid regulations of the activity of the estrogen-synthesizing enzyme, aromatase. Additional research on the functional significance and the cellular mechanisms underlying such rapid effects of steroids is now required to evaluate their overall importance in the control of reproduction.
Writing of this chapter and fractions of the research described in it were supported by grant MH 50388 from the National Institutes of Health.
Adkins, E. K. (1975). Hormonal basis of sexual differentiation in the Japanese quail. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 89, 61–71.Find this resource:
Adkins, E. K. (1977). Effects of diverse androgens on the sexual behavior and morphology of castrated male quail. Hormones and Behavior, 8, 201–207.Find this resource:
Adkins, E. K., Boop, J. J., Koutnik, D. L., Morris, J. B., & Pniewski, E. E. (1980). Further evidence that androgen aromatization is essential for the activation of copulation in male quail. Physiology and Behavior, 24, 441–446.Find this resource:
Adkins, E. K., & Nock, B. L. (1976). The effects of the antiestrogen CI-628 on sexual behavior activated by androgen and estrogen in quail. Hormones and Behavior, 7, 417–429.Find this resource:
Agmo, A., & Södersten, P. (1975). Sexual behavior in castrated rabbits treated with testosterone, oestradiol, DHT or oestradiol in combination with DHT. Journal of Endocrinology, 67, 327–332.Find this resource:
Alexandre, C., & Balthazart, J. (1986). Effects of metabolism inhibitors, antiestrogens and antiandrogens on the androgen and estrogen induced sexual behavior in Japanese quail. Physiology and Behavior, 38(4), 581–591.Find this resource:
Alsum, P., & Goy, R. W. (1974). Actions of esters of T, DHT and estradiol on sexual behavior in castrated male guinea pigs. Hormones and Behavior, 5, 207–218.Find this resource:
Alward, B. A., Balthazart, J., & Ball, G. F. (2013). Differential effects of global versus local testosterone on singing behavior and its underlying neural substrate. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(48), 19573–19578.Find this resource:
Alward, B. A., Madison, F. N., Gravley, W. T., & Ball, G. F. (2016). Antagonism of syringeal androgen receptors reduces the quality of female-preferred male song in canaries. Animal Behaviour, 119, 201–212.Find this resource:
Alward, B. A., Madison, F. N., Parker, S. E., & Balthazart, J. (2016, January–February). Pleiotropic control by testosterone of a learned vocal behavior and its underlying neuroplasticity. eNeuro, 3(1), ENEURO.0145-15.2016.Find this resource:
Alward, B. A., Rouse, M. L., Balthazart, J., & Ball, G. F. (2017). Testosterone regulates birdsong in an anatomically specific manner. Animal Behaviour, 124, 291–298.Find this resource:
Apostolakis, E. M., Ramamurphy, M., Zhou, D., Oñate, S., & O’Malley, B. W. (2002). Acute disruption of select steroid receptor coactivators prevents reproductive behavior in rats and unmasks genetic adaptation in knockout mice. Molecular Endocrinology, 16(7), 1511–1523.Find this resource:
Arnold, A. P., Nottebohm, F., & Pfaff, D. W. (1976). Hormone concentrating cells in vocal control areas of the brain of the zebra finch (Poephila guttata). Journal of Comparative Neurology, 165, 487–512.Find this resource:
Auger, A. P., Tetel, M. J., & McCarthy, M. M. (2000). Steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) mediates the development of sex-specific brain morphology and behavior. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97, 7551–7555.Find this resource:
Auger, C. J., & Ball, G. F. (2002). Expression of steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) in the brain of two species of songbird. Hormones and Behavior, 41, 455.Find this resource:
Auger, C. J., Bentley, G. E., Auger, A. P., Ramamurthy, M., & Ball, G. F. (2002). Expression of cAMP response element binding protein-binding protein in the song control system and hypothalamus of adult european starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). Journal of Neuroendocrinology, 14(10), 805–813.Find this resource:
Bagatell, C. J., Heiman, J. R., Rivier, J. E., & Bremner, W. J. (1994). Effects of endogenous testosterone and estradiol on sexual behavior in normal young men. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 78, 711–716.Find this resource:
Ball, G. F., & Balthazart, J. (2008a). How useful is the appetitive and consummatory distinction for our understanding of the neuroendocrine control of sexual behavior?. Hormones and Behavior, 53(2), 307–311.Find this resource:
Ball, G. F., & Balthazart, J. (2008b). Individual variation and the endocrine regulation of behaviour and physiology in birds: A cellular/molecular perspective. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 363(1497), 1699–1710.Find this resource:
Ball, G. F., & Balthazart, J. (2009). Endocrinology of animal communication: Behavioral. In L. R. Squire (Ed.), Encyclopedia of neuroscience (Vol. 3, pp. 981–989). Oxford: Academic Press.Find this resource:
Balthazart, J. (1989). Steroid metabolism and the activation of social behavior. In J. Balthazart (Ed.), Advances in comparative and environmental physiology (Vol. 3, pp. 105–159). Berlin: Springer Verlag.Find this resource:
Balthazart, J. (2017). Steroid metabolism in the brain: From bird watching to molecular biology, a personal journey. Hormones and Behavior. 93, 137-150Find this resource:
Balthazart, J., Baillien, M., & Ball, G. F. (2001). Rapid and reversible inhibition of brain aromatase activity. Journal of Neuroendocrinology, 13(1), 63–73.Find this resource:
Balthazart, J., Baillien, M., & Ball, G. F. (2006). Rapid control of brain aromatase activity by glutamatergic inputs. Endocrinology, 147(1), 359–366.Find this resource:
Balthazart, J., Baillien, M., Charlier, T. D., & Ball, G. F. (2003). Calcium-dependent phosphorylation processes control brain aromatase in quail. European Journal of Neuroscience, 17(8), 1591–1606.Find this resource:
Balthazart, J., & Ball, G. F. (2007). Topography in the preoptic region: Differential regulation of appetitive and consummatory male sexual behaviors. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, 28(4), 161–178.Find this resource:
Balthazart, J., Deviche, P., & Hendrick, J. (1977). Effects of exogenous hormones on the reproductive behaviour of adult male domestic ducks. II. Correlation with morphology and hormone plasma levels. Behavioural Processes, 2(2), 147–161.Find this resource:
Balthazart, J., Evrard, L., & Surlemont, C. (1990). Effects of the nonsteroidal inhibitor R76713 on testosterone-induced sexual behavior in the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Hormones and Behavior, 24(4), 510–531.Find this resource:
Balthazart, J., & Foidart, A. (1993). Brain aromatase and the control of male sexual behavior. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(4–6), 521–540.Find this resource:
Balthazart, J., Foidart, A., & Hendrick, J. C. (1990). The induction by testosterone of aromatase activity in the preoptic area and activation of copulatory behavior Physiology and Behavior, 47(1), 83–94.Find this resource:
Balthazart, J., & Hirschberg, D. (1979). Testosterone metabolism and sexual behavior in the chick. Hormones and Behavior, 12, 253–263.Find this resource:
Balthazart, J., Malacarne, G., & Deviche, P. (1981). Stimulatory effects of 5β-dihydrotestosterone on the sexual behavior in the domestic chick. Hormones and Behavior, 15(3), 246–258.Find this resource:
Balthazart, J., & Ottinger, M. A. (1984). 5β-Reductase activity in the brain and cloacal gland of male and female embryos in the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Journal of Endocrinology, 102(1), 77–81.Find this resource:
Balthazart, J., & Riters, L. V. (2001). Hormones and behavior. In D. Baltimore, R. Dubelcco, F. Jacobs, & R. Levi-Montalcini (Eds.), The biology of behavior (pp. 95–108). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.Find this resource:
Balthazart, J., & Schumacher, M. (1984). Changes in testosterone metabolism by the brain and cloacal gland during sexual maturation in the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Journal of Endocrinology, 100(1), 13–18.Find this resource:
Balthazart, J., Schumacher, M., & Malacarne, G. (1984). Relative potencies of testosterone and 5α-dihydrotestosterone on crowing and cloacal gland growth in the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Journal of Endocrinology, 100(1), 19–23.Find this resource:
Baum, M. J., & Vreeburg, J. T. (1973). Copulation in castrated male rats following combined treatment with estradiol and dihydrotestosterone. Science, 182(4109), 283–285.Find this resource:
Baum, M. J., & Vreeburg, J. T. M. (1976). Differential effects of the anti-estrogen MER-25 and of three 5a-reduced androgens on mounting and lordosis in the rat. Hormones and Behavior, 7, 87–104.Find this resource:
Beach, F. A. (1956). Characteristics of masculine “sex drive.” Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, 4, 1–32.Find this resource:
Becker, J. B., Breedlove, S. M., Crews, D., & McCarthy, M. M. (2002). Behavioral endocrinology (2d ed.). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Find this resource:
Berthold, A. A. (1849). Transplantation der Hoden. Archiv für Anatomie, Physiologie und Wissenschaftliche Medicine, 16, 42–46.Find this resource:
Beyer, C., Morali, G., Naftolin, F., Larsson, K., & Perez-Palacios, G. (1976). Effect of some antiestrogens and aromatase inhibitors on androgen-induced sexual behavior in castrated male rats. Hormones and Behavior, 7, 353–363.Find this resource:
Blaustein, J. D., & Olster, D. H. (1989). Gonadal steroid hormone receptors and social behaviors. In J. Balthazart (Ed.), Advances in comparative and environmental physiology, vol. 3 (3d ed., pp. 31–104). Berlin: Springer Verlag.Find this resource:
Callard, G. V., Hoffman, R. A., Petro, Z., & Ryan, K. J. (1979). In vitro aromatization and other androgen transformations in the brain of the hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). Biology of Reproduction, 21, 33–38.Find this resource:
Carani, C., Granata, A. R., Rochira, V., Caffagni, G., Aranda, C., Antunez, P., & Maffei, L. E. (2005). Sex steroids and sexual desire in a man with a novel mutation of aromatase gene and hypogonadism. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 30(5), 413–417.Find this resource:
Carani, C., Rochira, V., Faustini-Fustini, M., Balestrieri, A., & Granata, A. R. M. (1999). Role of oestrogen in male sexual behaviour: Insights from the natural model of aromatase deficiency. Clinical Endocrinology, 51(4), 517–524.Find this resource:
Celotti, F., Massa, R., & Martini, L. (1979). Metabolism of sex steroids in the central nervous system. In L. J. DeGroot (Ed.), Endocrinology (pp. 41–53). New York: Grune & Stratton.Find this resource:
Charlier, T. D., Ball, G. F., & Balthazart, J. (2005). Inhibition of steroid receptor coactivator-1 blocks estrogen and androgen action on male sex behavior and associated brain plasticity. Journal of Neuroscience, 25(4), 906–913.Find this resource:
Charlier, T. D., & Balthazart, J. (2005). Modulation of hormonal signaling in the brain by steroid receptor coactivators. Reviews in the Neurosciences, 16(4), 339–357.Find this resource:
Charlier, T. D., Lakaye, B., Ball, G. F., & Balthazart, J. (2002). Steroid receptor coactivator SRC-1 exhibits high expression in steroid-sensitive brain areas regulating reproductive behaviors in the quail brain. Neuroendocrinology, 76(5), 297–315.Find this resource:
Charlier, T. D., Seredynski, A. L., Niessen, N. A., & Balthazart, J. (2012). Modulation of testosterone-dependent male sexual behavior and the associated neuroplasticity. General and Comparative Endocrinology, 190, 24–33.Find this resource:
Christensen, L. W., & Clemens, L. G. (1975). Blockade of testosterone-induce mounting behavior in the male rat with intracranial application of the aromatization inhibitor, androst-1,4,6-triene-3,17-dione. Endocrinology, 97, 1545–1551.Find this resource:
Comito, D., Pradhan, D. S., Karleen, B. J., & Schlinger, B. A. (2015). Region-specific rapid regulation of aromatase activity in zebra finch brain. Journal of Neurochemistry, 136(6), 1177-1185.Find this resource:
Cornil, C. A., Ball, G. F., & Balthazart, J. (2006). Functional significance of the rapid regulation of brain estrogen action: Where do the estrogens come from?. Brain Research, 1126(1), 2–26.Find this resource:
Cornil, C. A., Ball, G. F., & Balthazart, J. (2012). Rapid control of male typical behaviors by brain-derived estrogens. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, 33(4), 425–446.Find this resource:
Cornil, C. A., Ball, G. F., & Balthazart, J. (2015). The dual action of estrogen hypothesis. Trends in Neuroscience, 38(7), 408–416.Find this resource:
Cornil, C. A., Dalla, C., Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Z., Baillien, M., & Balthazart, J. (2006). Estradiol rapidly activates male sexual behavior and affects brain monoamine levels in the quail brain. Behavioural Brain Research, 166(1), 110–123.Find this resource:
Cornil, C. A., Dalla, C., Papadopoulu-Daifoti, Z., Baillien, M., Dejace, C., Ball, G. F., & Balthazart, J. (2005). Rapid decreases in preoptic aromatase activity and brain monoamine concentrations after engaging in male sexual behavior. Endocrinology, 146, 3809–3820.Find this resource:
Cornil, C. A., Leung, C. H., Pletcher, E. R., Naranjo, K. C., Blauman, S. J., & Saldanha, C. J. (2012). Acute and specific modulation of presynaptic aromatization in the vertebrate brain. Endocrinology, 153(6), 2562–2567.Find this resource:
Crews, D. (2005). Evolution of neuroendocrine mechanisms that regulate sexual behavior. Trends in Endocrino ogy and Metabolism, 16, 354–361.Find this resource:
Cross, E., & Roselli, C. E. (1999). 17beta-estradiol rapidly facilitates chemoinvestigation and mounting in castrated male rats. American Journal of Physiology, 276(5, Pt 2), R1346–1350.Find this resource:
Damassa, D. A., Smith, E. R., Tennent, B., & Davidson, J. M. (1977). The relationship between circulating testosterone levels and male sexual behavior in rats. Hormones and Behavior, 8(3), 275–286.Find this resource:
Davidson, J. M., Camargo, C. A., & Smith, E. R. (1979). Effects of androgen on sexual behavior in hypogonadal men. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 48(6), 955–958.Find this resource:
de Bournonville, C., Dickens, M. J., Ball, G. F., Balthazart, J., & Cornil, C. A. (2013). Dynamic changes in brain aromatase activity following sexual interactions in males: Where, when and why?. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 38(6), 789–799.Find this resource:
de Bournonville, C., Smolders, I., Van Eeckhaut, A., Ball, G. F., Balthazart, J., & Cornil, C. A. (2017). Glutamate released in the preoptic area during sexual behavior controls local estrogen synthesis in male quail. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 79, 49–58.Find this resource:
Dessi-Fulgheri, F., Lucarini, N., & Lupo di Prisco, C. (1976). Relationships between testosterone metabolism in the brain, other endocrine variables and intermale aggression in mice. Aggressive Behavior, 2, 223–231.Find this resource:
Dewing, P., Boulware, M. I., Sinchak, K., Christensen, A., Mermelstein, P. G., & Micevych, P. (2007). Membrane estrogen receptor-alpha interactions with metabotropic glutamate receptor 1a modulate female sexual receptivity in rats. Journal of Neuroscience, 27(35), 9294–9300.Find this resource:
Dickens, M. J., Cornil, C. A., & Balthazart, J. (2011). Acute stress differentially affects aromatase activity in specific brain nuclei of adult male and female quail. Endocrinology, 152(11), 4242–4251.Find this resource:
Do Rego, J. L., Seong, J. Y., Burel, D., Leprince, J., Luu-The, V., Tsutsui, K., . . . Vaudry, H. (2009). Neurosteroid biosynthesis: enzymatic pathways and neuroendocrine regulation by neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinol, 30(3), 259–301.Find this resource:
Feder, H. H. (1981). Essentials of steroid structure, nomenclature, reactions, biosynthesis, and measurements. In N. T. Adler (Ed.), Neuroendocrinology of reproduction physiology and behavior (pp. 19–63). New York: Plenum Press.Find this resource:
Filardo, E. J., & Thomas, P. (2005). GPR30: A seven-transmembrane-spanning estrogen receptor that triggers EGF release. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism, 16(8), 362–367.Find this resource:
Finkelstein, J. S., Lee, H., Burnett-Bowie, S. A., Pallais, J. C., Yu, E. W., Borges, L. F., . . . Leder, B. Z. (2013). Gonadal steroids and body composition, strength, and sexual function in men. New England Journal of Medicine, 369(11), 1011–1022.Find this resource:
Foidart, A., Lakaye, B., Grisar, T., Ball, G. F., & Balthazart, J. (1999). Estrogen receptor-β in quail: Cloning, tissue expression and neuroanatomical distribution. Journal of Neurobiology, 40(3), 327–342.Find this resource:
Garavini, C., & Cristofori, M. (1984). The effect of 5a-dihydrotestosterone and 5b-dihydrotestosterone on erythropoiesis of the newt, Triturus cristatus carnifex (Laur). General and Comparative Endocrinology, 54, 188–193.Find this resource:
Gehin, M., Mark, M., Dennefeld, C., Dierich, A., Gronemeyer, H., & Chambon, P. (2002). The function of TIF2/GRIP1 in mouse reproduction is distinct from those of SRC-1 and p/CIP. Molecular and Cellular Biology, 22(16), 5923–5937.Find this resource:
Godwin, J., & Lamm, M. (2017). Socially-controlled sex change in fishes. In D. W. Pfaff & M. Joëls (Eds.), Hormones, brain and behavior (Vol. 2, 3d ed., pp. 31–46). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier.Find this resource:
Goodson, J. L. (2005). The vertebrate social behavior network: Evolutionary themes and variations. Hormones and Behavior, 48(1), 11–22.Find this resource:
Grunt, J. A., & Young, W. C. (1953). Consistency of sexual behavior patterns in individual male guinea pigs following castration and androgen therapty. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 46, 138–144.Find this resource:
Harding, C. F., & Feder, H. H. (1976). Relation between individual differences in sexual behavior and plasma testosterone levels in the guinea pig. Endocrinology, 98(5), 1198–1205.Find this resource:
Harding, C. F., Sheridan, K., & Walters, M. J. (1983). Hormonal specificity and activation of sexual behavior in male zebra finches. Hormones and Behavior, 17, 111–133.Find this resource:
Hutchison, J. B., & Steimer, T. (1981). Brain 5b-reductase: A correlate of behavioral sensitivity to androgen. Science, 213, 244–246.Find this resource:
Jensen, E. V., Suzuki, T., Kawasima, T., Stumpf, W. E., Jungblut, P. W., & De Sombre, E. R. (1968). A two-step mechanism for the interaction of estradiol with rat uterus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 59, 632–638.Find this resource:
Kelley, D. B., & Pfaff, D. W. (1978). Generalizations from comparative studies on neuroanatomical and endocrine mechanisms of sexual behaviour. In J. B. Hutchison (Ed.), Biological determinants of sexual behaviour (pp. 225–254). Chichester, U.K.: John Wiley & Sons.Find this resource:
Kelly, M. J., Moss, R. L., & Dudley, C. A. (1976). Differential sensitivity of preoptic-septal neurons to microelectrophoresed estrogen during the estrous cycle. Brain Research, 114(1), 152–157.Find this resource:
Krohmer, R. W. (2013). Aromatase, low temperature dormancy, and reproduction in the red-sided garter snake. In J. Balthazart & G. F. Ball (Eds.), Brain aromatase, estrogens and behavior (pp. 236–252). New York: Oxford University Press.Find this resource:
Kuiper, G. G. J. M., Enmark, E., Pelto-Huikko, M., Nilsson, S., & Gustafsson, J. Å. (1996). Cloning of a novel estrogen receptor expressed in rat prostate and ovary. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 93, 5925–5930.Find this resource:
Levere, R. D., Kappas, A., & Granick, S. (1967). Stimulation of hemoglobin synthesis in chick blastoderm by certain 5b-androstane and 5a-pregnane steroids. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 58, 985–990.Find this resource:
Luttge, W. G., & Hall, N. R. (1973). Androgen-induced agonistic behavior in castrate male Swiss-Webster mice: Comparison of four naturally occurring androgens. Behavioral Biology, 8, 725–732.Find this resource:
Martini, L. (1982). The 5a-reduction of testosterone in the neuroendocrine structures: Biochemical and physiological implications. Endocrine Reviews, 3, 1–25.Find this resource:
Massa, R., Cresti, L., & Martini, L. (1977). Metabolism of testosterone in the anterior pituitary and in the central nervous system of the European starling. Journal of Endocrinology, 75, 347–354.Find this resource:
Matsuda, K.I., Sakamoto, H., & Kawata, M. (2008). Androgen action in the brain and spinal cord for the regulation of male sexual behaviors. Current Opinion in Pharmacology, 8, 747–751.Find this resource:
McCarthy, M., M., De Vries, G. J., & Forger, N. G. (2009). Sexual differentiation of the brain: Mode, mechanisms, and meaning. In D. W. Pfaff, A. P. Arnold, A. M. Etgen, S. E. Fahrbach, & R. T. Rubin (Eds.), Hormones, brain and behavior (pp. 1707–1746). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Find this resource:
McEwen, B. S. (1981). Neural gonadal steroid actions. Science, 211, 1303–1311.Find this resource:
McEwen, B. S. (1994). Steroid hormone actions on the brain: When is the genome involved? Hormones and Behavior, 28, 396–405.Find this resource:
McEwen, B. S., & Alves, S. E. (1999). Estrogen actions in the central nervous system. Endocrine Reviews, 20, 279–307.Find this resource:
McKenna, N. J., Cooney, A. J., DeMayo, F. J., Downes, M., Glass, C. K., Lanz, R. B., . . . O’Malley, B. W. (2009). Minireview: Evolution of NURSA, the Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas. Molecular Endocrinology, 23(6), 740–746.Find this resource:
McKenna, N. J., Nawaz, Z., Tsai, S. Y., Tsai, M. J., & O’Malley, B. W. (1998). Distinct steady-state nuclear receptor coregulator complexes exist in vivo. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 95(20), 11697–11702.Find this resource:
McKenna, N. J., & O’Malley, B. W. (2002). Combinatorial control of gene expression by nuclear receptors and coregulators. Cell, 108(4), 465–474.Find this resource:
Meijer, O. C., Steenbergen, P. J., & De Kloet, E. R. (2000). Differential expression and regional distribution of steroid receptor coactivators SRC-1 and SRC-2 in brain and pituitary. Endocrinology, 141(6), 2192–2199.Find this resource:
Meitzen, J., Luoma, J. I., Boulware, M. I., Hedges, V. L., Peterson, B. M., Tuomela, K., . . . Mermelstein, P. G. (2013). Palmitoylation of estrogen receptors is essential for neuronal membrane signaling. Endocrinology, 154(11), 4293–4304.Find this resource:
Micevych, P., & Dominguez, R. (2009). Membrane estradiol signaling in the brain. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, 30(3), 315–327.Find this resource:
Molenda, H. A., Griffin, A. L., Auger, A. P., McCarthy, M. M., & Tetel, M. J. (2002). Nuclear receptor coactivators modulate hormone-dependent gene expression in brain and female reproductive behavior in rats. Endocrinology, 143(2), 436–444.Find this resource:
Molenda-Figueira, H. A., Murphy, S. D., Shea, K. L., Siegal, N. K., Zhao, Y., Chadwick, J. G., Jr., . . . Tetel, M. J. (2008). Steroid receptor coactivator-1 from brain physically interacts differentially with steroid receptor subtypes. Endocrinology, 149(10), 5272–5279.Find this resource:
Monks, D. A., Xu, J. M., O’Malley, B. W., & Jordan, C. L. (2003). Steroid receptor coactivator-1 is not required for androgen-mediated sexual differentiation of spinal motoneurons. Neuroendocrinology, 78(1), 45–51.Find this resource:
Morales, A. (2013). The long and tortuous history of the discovery of testosterone and its clinical application. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 10(4), 1178–1183.Find this resource:
Morrell, J. I., Kelley, D. B., & Pfaff, D. W. (1975). Sex steroid binding in the brain of vertebrates. In K. M. Knigge, D. E. Scott, H. Kobayashi, S. Miura, & S. Ishii (Eds.), Brain-endocrine interactions II (pp. 230–256). Basel, Switzerland: Karger.Find this resource:
Morrell, J. I., & Pfaff, D. W. (1978). A neuroendocrine approach to brain function: localization of sex steroid concentrating cells in vertebrate brains. American Zoologist, 18, 447–460.Find this resource:
Mosselman, S., Polman, J., & Dijkema, R. (1996). ER beta: Identification and characterization of a novel human estrogen receptor. FEBS Letters, 392, 49–53.Find this resource:
Naule, L., Marie-Luce, C., Parmentier, C., Martini, M., Albac, C., Trouillet, A. C., . . . Mhaouty-Kodja, S. (2016). Revisiting the neural role of estrogen receptor beta in male sexual behavior by conditional mutagenesis. Hormones and Behavior, 80, 1–9.Find this resource:
Neal, J. K., & Wade, J. (2007). Androgen receptor expression and morphology of forebrain and neuromuscular systems in male green anoles displaying individual differences in sexual behavior. Hormones and Behavior, 52(2), 228-236Find this resource:
Nelson, R. J. (2011). An introduction to behavioral endocrinology (4th ed.). Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.Find this resource:
Newman, S. W. (1999). The medial extended amygdala in male reproductive behavior—A node in the mammalian social behavior network. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 877, 242–257.Find this resource:
Niessen, N. A., Balthazart, J., Ball, G. F., & Charlier, T. D. (2011). Steroid receptor coactivator 2 modulates steroid-dependent male sexual behavior and neuroplasticity in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Journal of Neurochemistry, 119(3), 579–593.Find this resource:
Nottebohm, F., Stokes, T. M., & Leonard, C. M. (1976). Central control of song in the canary, Serinus canarius. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 165, 457–486.Find this resource:
O’Connell, L. A., & Hofmann, H. A. (2011). Genes, hormones, and circuits: An integrative approach to study the evolution of social behavior. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, 32(3), 320–335.Find this resource:
O’Malley, B. W., & Tsai, M.-J. (1992). Molecular pathways of steroid receptor action. Biology of Reproduction, 46, 163–167.Find this resource:
Ogawa, S., Chan, J., Chester, A. E., Gustafsson, J. Å., Korach, K. S., & Pfaff, D. W. (1999). Survival of reproductive behaviors in estrogen receptor beta gene-deficient (betaERKO) male and female mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 96, 12887–12892.Find this resource:
Ogawa, S., Chester, A. E., Hewitt, S. C., Walker, V. R., Gustafsson, J. Å., Smithies, O., . . . Pfaff, D. W. (2000). Abolition of male sexual behaviors in mice lacking estrogen receptors alpha and beta (alphabetaERKO). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97, 14737–14741.Find this resource:
Ogawa, S., Lubahn, D. B., Korach, K. S., & Pfaff, D. W. (1997). Behavioral effects of estrogen receptor gene disruption in male mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 94, 1476–1481.Find this resource:
Onate, S. A., Tsai, S. Y., Tsai, M. J., & O’Malley, B. W. (1995). Sequence and characterization of a coactivator for the steroid hormone receptor superfamily. Science, 270(5240), 1354–1357.Find this resource:
Ono, S., Geller, L. N., & Lai, E. V. (1974). TfM mutation and masculinization versus feminization of the mouse central nervous system. Cell, 3(3), 235–242.Find this resource:
Pfaff, D. W. (1980). Estrogen and brain function. New York: Springer-Verlag.Find this resource:
Phelps, S. M., Lydon, J. P., O’Malley, B. W., & Crews, D. (1998). Regulation of male sexual behavior by progesterone receptor, sexual experience, and androgen. Hormones and Behavior, 34, 294–302.Find this resource:
Phoenix, C. H. (1974). Effects of DHT on sexual behavior of castrated rhesus monkeys. Physiology and Behavior, 12, 1045–1055.Find this resource:
Portillo, W., Diaz, N. F., Retana-Marquez, S., & Paredes, R. G. (2006). Olfactory, partner preference and Fos expression in the vomeronasal projection pathway of sexually sluggish male rats. Physiology and Behavior, 88(4–5), 389–397.Find this resource:
Pradhan, D. S., Newman, A. E., Wacker, D. W., Wingfield, J. C., Schlinger, B. A., & Soma, K. K. (2010). Aggressive interactions rapidly increase androgen synthesis in the brain during the non-breeding season. Hormones and Behavior, 57(4–5), 381–389.Find this resource:
Pradhan, D. S., Yu, Y., & Soma, K. K. (2008). Rapid estrogen regulation of DHEA metabolism in the male and female songbird brain. Journal of Neurochemistry, 104(1), 244–253.Find this resource:
Ramenofsky, M. (1984). Agonistic behaviour and endogenous plasma hormones in male japanese quail. Animal Behaviour, 32(3), 698–708.Find this resource:
Raskin, K., de Gendt, K., Duittoz, A., Liere, P., Verhoeven, G., Tronche, F., & Mhaouty-Kodja, S. (2009). Conditional inactivation of androgen receptor gene in the nervous system: Effects on male behavioral and neuroendocrine responses. Journal of Neuroscience, 29(14), 4461-4470Find this resource:
Remage-Healey, L., & Bass, A. H. (2004). Rapid, hierarchical modulation of vocal patterning by steroid hormones. Journal of Neuroscience, 24(26), 5892–5900.Find this resource:
Remage-Healey, L., Dong, S. M., Chao, A., & Schlinger, B. A. (2012). Sex-specific, rapid neuroestrogen fluctuations and neurophysiological actions in the songbird auditory forebrain. Journal of Neurophysiology, 107(6), 1621–1631.Find this resource:
Remage-Healey, L., Maidment, N. T., & Schlinger, B. A. (2008). Forebrain steroid levels fluctuate rapidly during social interactions. Nature Neuroscience, 11(11), 1327–1334.Find this resource:
Rissman, E. F., Wersinger, S. R., Taylor, J. A., & Lubahn, D. B. (1997). Estrogen receptor function as revealed by knockout studies: Neuroendocrine and behavioral aspects. Hormones and Behavior, 31, 232–243.Find this resource:
Roepke, T. A., Qiu, J., Bosch, M. A., Ronnekleiv, O. K., & Kelly, M. J. (2009). Cross-talk between membrane-initiated and nuclear-initiated oestrogen signalling in the hypothalamus. Journal of Neuroendocrinology, 21(4), 263–270.Find this resource:
Ronnekleiv, O. K., & Kelly, M. J. (2002). Rapid membrane effects of estrogen in the central nervous system. In D. W. Pfaff, A. P. Arnold, A. M. Etgen, S. E. Fahrbach, & R. T. Rubin (Eds.), Hormones, brain and behavior (Vol. 3, pp. 361–380). Academic Press, Amsterdam, Copyright Elsevier Science, San Diego CA.Find this resource:
Roselli, C. E. (1991). Sex differences in androgen receptors and aromatase activity in microdissected regions of the rat brain. Endocrinology, 128(3), 1310–1316.Find this resource:
Roselli, C. E., Horton, L. E., & Resko, J. A. (1985). Distribution and regulation of aromatase activity in the rat hypothalamus and limbic system. Endocrinology, 117, 2471–2477.Find this resource:
Sakamoto, H., Matsuda, K. I., Zuloaga, D. G., Hongu, H., Wada, K., Jordan, C. L., . . . Kawata, M. (2008). Sexually dimorphic gastrin releasing peptide system in the spinal cord controls male reproductive functions. Nature Neuroscience, 11(6), 634–636.Find this resource:
Sato, T., Matsumoto, T., Kawano, H., Watanabe, T., Uematsu, Y., Sekine, K., . . . Kato, S. (2004). Brain masculinization requires androgen receptor function. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101(6), 1673–1678.Find this resource:
Schumacher, M. (1990). Rapid membrane effects of steroid hormones: an emerging concept in neuroendocrinology. Trends in Neuroscience, 13, 359–362.Find this resource:
Schumacher, M., & Balthazart, J. (1983). The effects of testosterone and its metabolites on sexual behavior and morphology in male and female Japanese quail. Physiology and.Behavior, 30, 335–339.Find this resource:
Schumacher, M., & Balthazart, J. (1986). Testosterone-induced brain aromatase is sexually dimorphic. Brain Research, 370(2), 285–293.Find this resource:
Schumacher, M., & Balthazart, J. (1987). Neuroanatomical distribution of testosterone metabolizing enzymes in the Japanese quail. Brain Research, 422, 137–148.Find this resource:
Seredynski, A. L., Balthazart, J., Ball, G. F., & Cornil, C. A. (2015). Estrogen receptor beta activation rapidly modulates male sexual motivation through the transactivation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 1a. Journal of Neuroscience, 35(38), 13110–13123.Find this resource:
Seredynski, A. L., Balthazart, J., Christophe, V. J., Ball, G. F., & Cornil, C. A. (2013). Neuroestrogens rapidly regulate sexual motivation but not performance. Journal of Neuroscience, 33(1), 164–174.Find this resource:
Snyder, P. J., Peachey, H., Berlin, J. A., Hannoush, P., Haddad, G., Dlewati, A., . . . Strom, B. L. (2000). Effects of testosterone replacement in hypogonadal men. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 85, 2670–2677.Find this resource:
Soma, K. K., Alday, N. A., Hau, M., & Schlinger, B. A. (2004). Dehydroepiandrosterone metabolism by 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta5-Delta4 isomerase in adult zebra finch brain: Sex difference and rapid effect of stress. Endocrinology, 145(4), 1668–1677.Find this resource:
Soma, K. K., Sullivan, K., & Wingfield, J. (1999). Combined aromatase inhibitor and antiandrogen treatment decreases territorial aggression in a wild songbird during the nonbreeding season. General and Comparative Endocrinology, 115(3), 442–453.Find this resource:
Soma, K. K., Sullivan, K. A., Tramontin, A. D., Saldanha, C. J., Schlinger, B. A., & Wingfield, J. C. (2000). Acute and chronic effects of an aromatase inhibitor on territorial aggression in breeding and nonbreeding male song sparrows. Journal of Comparative Physiology [A], 186, 759–769.Find this resource:
Steimer, T., & Hutchison, J. B. (1981). Androgen increases formation of behaviourally effective oestrogen in dove brain. Nature, 292, 345–347.Find this resource:
Stumpf, W. E., & Sar, M. (1976). Steroid hormone target sites in the brain: The differential distribution of estrogin, progestin, androgen and glucocorticosteroid. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry, 7(11–12), 1163–1170.Find this resource:
Swift-Gallant, A., Coome, L., Srinivasan, S., & Monks, D. A. (2016). Non-neural androgen receptor promotes androphilic odor preference in mice. Hormones and Behavior, 83, 14–22.Find this resource:
Swift-Gallant, A., & Monks, D. A. (2017). Androgenic mechanisms of sexual differentiation of the nervous system and behavior. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, 46, 32-45.Find this resource:
Taziaux, M., Keller, M., Bakker, J., & Balthazart, J. (2007). Sexual behavior activity tracks rapid changes in brain estrogen concentrations. Journal of Neuroscience, 27(24), 6563–6572.Find this resource:
Tetel, M. J., Auger, A. P., & Charlier, T. D. (2009). Who’s in charge? Nuclear receptor coactivator and corepressor function in brain and behavior. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, 30(3), 328–342.Find this resource:
Tetel, M. J., Siegal, N. K., & Murphy, S. D. (2007). Cells in behaviourally relevant brain regions coexpress nuclear receptor coactivators and ovarian steroid receptors. Journal of Neuroendocrinology, 19(4), 262–271.Find this resource:
Tobet, S. A., & Fox, T. O. (1992). Sex differences in neuronal morphology influenced hormonally throughout life. In A. A. Gerall, H. Moltz, & I. L. Ward (Eds.), Handbook of behavioral neurobiology (Vol. 11, pp. 41–83). New York: Plenum Press.Find this resource:
Toran-Allerand, C. D., Guan, X. P., MacLusky, N. J., Horvath, T. L., Diano, S., Singh, M., . . . Tinnikov, A. A. (2002). ER-X: A novel, plasma membrane-associated, putative estrogen receptor that is regulated during development and after ischemic brain injury. Journal of Neuroscience, 22(19), 8391–8401.Find this resource:
Van Krey, H. P., Siegel, P. B., Balander, R., & Benoff, F. H. (1983). Testosterone aromatization in high and low mating lines of gallinaceous birds. Physiology and Behavior, 31, 153–157.Find this resource:
Verhovshek, T., Buckley, K. E., Sergent, M. A., & Sengelaub, D. R. (2010). Testosterone metabolites differentially maintain adult morphology in a sexually dimorphic neuromuscular system. Developmental Neurobiology, 70(4), 206–221.Find this resource:
Wang, C., Swerdloff, R. S., Iranmanesh, A., Dobs, A., Snyder, P. J., Cunningham, G., . . . Grp, T. G. S. (2000). Transdermal testosterone gel improves sexual function, mood, muscle strength, and body composition parameters in hypogonadal men. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 85, 2839–2853.Find this resource:
Whalen, R. E., & DeBold, J. F. (1974). Comparative effectiveness of T, androstenedione and DHT in maintaining mating behavior in castrated male hamster. Endocrinology, 95, 1674–1679.Find this resource:
Whalen, R. E., & Luttge, W. G. (1971). Testosterone, androstenedione, and dihydrotestosterone: Effects on mating behavior of male rats. Hormones and Behavior, 2, 117–125.Find this resource:
Whalen, R. E., Yahr, P., & Luttge, W. G. (1985). The role of metabolism in hormonal control of sexual behavior. In N. Adler, D. Pfaff & R. W. Goy (Eds.), Handbook of behavioral meurobiology. Vol. 7: Reproduction (pp. 609–663). New York: Plenum Press.Find this resource:
Wingfield, J. C., & Hahn, T. P. (1994). Testosterone and territorial behaviour in sedentary and migratory sparrows. AnimalBehavior, 47, 77–89.Find this resource:
Xu, J., Qiu, Y., DeMayo, F. J., Tsai, S. Y., Tsai, M. J., & O’Malley, B. W. (1998). Partial hormone resistance in mice with disruption of the steroid receptor coactivator)1 (SRC-1) gene. Science, 279, 1922–1925.Find this resource:
Yahr, P. (2015). Two aromatase inhibitors inhibit the ability of a third to promote mating in male rats. Hormones and Behavior, 75, 41–44.Find this resource:
Yang, C. F., Chiang, M. C., Gray, D. C., Prabhakaran, M., Alvarado, M., Juntti, S. A., . . . Shah, N. M. (2013). Sexually dimorphic neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus govern mating in both sexes and aggression in males. Cell, 153(4), 896–909.Find this resource:
Ziegler, H. P., & Marler, P. (2008). Neuroscience of birdsong. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Find this resource: