Figure 10. Simulated June–August precipitation (color shading mm·d–1) and wind flow at σ‎ = 0.89 (left column) and corresponding mechanisms (right column): (a) the control experiment; the bold red lines in the right column on the Iranian-Tibetan Plateau surface represent heating; (b) the experiment with the mechanical forcing but without the surface sensible heating above the Plateau; (c) the experiment with the Himalaya heating and topography but without the TP plateau; and (d) the Himalaya topography only (the same as c but without the surface sensible heating above the Himalayas). Dark blue open arrows in the right column denote the main atmospheric flows impinging on the TP, either climbing up the plateau (a and c) or moving around the plateau, parallel to orographic contours (b and d). Figures are adapted and modified from Wu et al. (2012) and Wu et al. (2007).