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## The Economics of Physics: The Social Cost-Benefit Analysis of Large Research Infrastructures

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Physics. Please check back later for the full article. In ... More

## The Evolution of Public Funding of Science in the United States From World War II to the Present

Online publication date:
Mar 2020
Large-scale U.S. government support of scientific research began in World War II with physics, and rapidly expanded in the postwar era to contribute strongly to the United States’ emergence ... More

## Magnetohydrodynamic Equilibria

Online publication date:
Mar 2020
Magnetohydrodynamic equilibria are time-independent solutions of the full magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. An important class are static equilibria without plasma flow. They are ... More

## Magnetohydrodynamic Reconnection

Online publication date:
Feb 2020
Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental process that is important for the dynamical evolution of highly conducting plasmas throughout the Universe. In such highly conducting plasmas the ... More

## Physics-to-Technology Partnerships in the Semiconductor Industry

The development of physics over the past few centuries has increasingly enabled the development of numerous technologies that have revolutionized society. In the 17th century, Newton built ... More

## Quantum Bit Modalities/Architectures

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Physics. Please check back later for the full article. The theory ... More

## Quantum Characterization, Verification, and Validation

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Physics. Please check back later for the full article. Quantum ... More

## Quantum Error Correction

Online publication date:
Feb 2020
Quantum error correction is a set of methods to protect quantum information—that is, quantum states—from unwanted environmental interactions (decoherence) and other forms of noise. The ... More

## Solar Chromosphere

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Physics. Please check back later for the full article. The solar ... More

## Solar Dynamo

Online publication date:
Apr 2020
The solar dynamo is the action of flows inside the Sun to maintain its magnetic field against Ohmic decay. On small scales the magnetic field is seen at the solar surface as a ubiquitous ... More

## Solar Flares

Online publication date:
Mar 2020
A solar flare is a transient increase in solar brightness powered by the release of magnetic energy stored in the Sun’s corona. Flares are observed in all wavelengths of the electromagnetic ... More

## Solar Photosphere

Online publication date:
Apr 2020
The Sun is a G2V star with an effective temperature of 5780 K. As the nearest star to Earth and the biggest object in the solar system, it serves as a reference for fundamental astronomical ... More

## Solar-Wind Origin

Online publication date:
Jul 2019
The Sun continuously expels a fraction of its own mass in the form of a steadily accelerating outflow of ionized gas called the “solar wind.” The solar wind is the extension of the Sun’s ... More

## Solar-Wind Structure

Online publication date:
Feb 2020
The hot solar atmosphere continually expands out into space to form the solar wind, which drags with it the Sun’s magnetic field. This creates a cavity in the interstellar medium, extending ... More

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