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Adiabatic Quantum Computing and Quantum Annealing  

Erica K. Grant and Travis S. Humble

Online publication date:
Jul 2020
Adiabatic quantum computing (AQC) is a model of computation that uses quantum mechanical processes operating under adiabatic conditions. As a form of universal quantum computation, AQC ... More

The Economics of Physics: The Social Cost-Benefit Analysis of Large Research Infrastructures  

Massimo Florio and Chiara Pancotti

Online publication date:
Jun 2020
In economics, infrastructure is a long-term investment aimed at the delivery of essential services to a large number of users, such as those in the field of transport, energy, or ... More

The Evolution of Public Funding of Science in the United States From World War II to the Present  

Kei Koizumi

Online publication date:
Mar 2020
Large-scale U.S. government support of scientific research began in World War II with physics, and rapidly expanded in the postwar era to contribute strongly to the United States’ emergence ... More

Magnetohydrodynamic Equilibria  

Thomas Wiegelmann

Online publication date:
Mar 2020
Magnetohydrodynamic equilibria are time-independent solutions of the full magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. An important class are static equilibria without plasma flow. They are ... More

Magnetohydrodynamic Reconnection  

D. I. Pontin

Online publication date:
Feb 2020
Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental process that is important for the dynamical evolution of highly conducting plasmas throughout the Universe. In such highly conducting plasmas the ... More

Magnetohydrodynamics: Overview  

E.R. Priest

Magnetohydrodynamics is sometimes called magneto-fluid dynamics or hydromagnetics and is referred to as MHD for short. It is the unification of two fields that were completely independent ... More

Multi-Fluid Effects in Magnetohydrodynamics  

Elena Khomenko

Online publication date:
Jul 2020
Multi-fluid magnetohydrodynamics is an extension of classical magnetohydrodynamics that allows a simplified treatment plasmas with complex chemical mixtures. The types of plasma susceptible ... More

Physics-to-Technology Partnerships in the Semiconductor Industry  

Robert Doering

The development of physics over the past few centuries has increasingly enabled the development of numerous technologies that have revolutionized society. In the 17th century, Newton built ... More

Quantum Bit Modalities/Architectures  

Cornelius Hempel

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Physics. Please check back later for the full article. The theory ... More

Quantum Characterization, Verification, and Validation  

Joel Wallman, Steven Flammia, and Ian Hincks

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Physics. Please check back later for the full article. Quantum ... More

Quantum Error Correction  

Todd A. Brun

Online publication date:
Feb 2020
Quantum error correction is a set of methods to protect quantum information—that is, quantum states—from unwanted environmental interactions (decoherence) and other forms of noise. The ... More

Role of Quarks in Nuclear Structure  

A. W. Thomas

Online publication date:
Jul 2020
The strong force that binds atomic nuclei is governed by the rules of Quantum Chromodynamics. Here we consider the suggestion the internal quark structure of a nucleon will adjust ... More

Solar Chromosphere  

Shahin Jafarzadeh

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Physics. Please check back later for the full article. The solar ... More

Solar Cycle  

Lidia van Driel-Gesztelyi and Mathew J. Owens

Online publication date:
Jul 2020
The Sun’s magnetic field drives the solar wind and produces space weather. It also acts as the prototype for an understanding of other stars and their planetary environments. Plasma motions ... More

Solar Dynamo  

Robert Cameron

Online publication date:
Apr 2020
The solar dynamo is the action of flows inside the Sun to maintain its magnetic field against Ohmic decay. On small scales the magnetic field is seen at the solar surface as a ubiquitous ... More

Solar Flares  

Dana Longcope

Online publication date:
Mar 2020
A solar flare is a transient increase in solar brightness powered by the release of magnetic energy stored in the Sun’s corona. Flares are observed in all wavelengths of the electromagnetic ... More

Solar Photosphere  

L. P. Chitta, H. N. Smitha, and S. K. Solanki

Online publication date:
Apr 2020
The Sun is a G2V star with an effective temperature of 5780 K. As the nearest star to Earth and the biggest object in the solar system, it serves as a reference for fundamental astronomical ... More

Solar Physics—Overview  

E.R. Priest

Online publication date:
Jul 2020
Solar physics is one of the liveliest branches of astrophysics at the current time, with many major advances that have been stimulated by observations from a series of space satellites and ... More

Solar Wind: Interaction With Planets  

Chris Arridge

Online publication date:
Jul 2020
The interaction between the solar wind and planetary bodies in our solar system has been investigated since well before the space age. The study of the aurora borealis and australis was a ... More

Solar-Wind Origin  

Steven R. Cranmer

Online publication date:
Jul 2019
The Sun continuously expels a fraction of its own mass in the form of a steadily accelerating outflow of ionized gas called the “solar wind.” The solar wind is the extension of the Sun’s ... More

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