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Progress in Gamma Detection for Basic Nuclear Science and Applications  

J. Simpson and A. J. Boston

The atomic nucleus, consisting of protons and neutrons, is a unique strongly interacting quantum mechanical system that makes up 99.9% of all visible matter. From the inception of gamma-ray detectors to the early 21st century, advances in gamma detection have allowed researchers to broaden their understanding of the fundamental properties of all nuclei and their interactions. Key technical advances have enabled the development of state-of-the art instruments that are expected to address a wide range of nuclear science at the extremes of the nuclear landscape, excitation energy, spin, stability, and mass. The realisation of efficient gamma detection systems has impact in many applications such as medical imaging environmental radiation monitoring, and security. Even though the technical advances made so far are remarkable, further improvements are continually being implemented or planned.

Article

The Partonic Content of Nucleons and Nuclei  

Juan Rojo

Deepening our knowledge of the partonic content of nucleons and nuclei represents a central endeavor of modern high-energy and nuclear physics, with ramifications in related disciplines, such as astroparticle physics. There are two main scientific drivers motivating these investigations of the partonic structure of hadrons. On the one hand, addressing fundamental open issues in our understanding of the strong interaction, such as the origin of the nucleon mass, spin, and transverse structure; the presence of heavy quarks in the nucleon wave function; and the possible onset of novel gluon-dominated dynamical regimes. On the other hand, pinning down with the highest possible precision the substructure of nucleons and nuclei is a central component for theoretical predictions in a wide range of experiments, from proton and heavy-ion collisions at the Large Hadron Collider to ultra-high-energy neutrino interactions at neutrino telescopes.