General relativity in three spacetime dimensions is a simplified model of gravity, possessing no local degrees of freedom, yet rich enough to admit black-hole solutions and other phenomena of interest. In the presence of a negative cosmological constant, the asymptotically anti–de Sitter (AdS) solutions admit a symmetry algebra consisting of two copies of the Virasoro algebra, with central charge inversely proportional to Newton’s constant. The study of this theory is greatly enriched by the AdS/CFT correspondence, which in this case implies a relationship to two-dimensional conformal field theory. General aspects of this theory can be understood by focusing on universal properties such as symmetries. The best understood examples of the AdS3/CFT2 correspondence arise from string theory constructions, in which case the gravity sector is accompanied by other propagating degrees of freedom. A question of recent interest is whether pure gravity can be made sense of as a quantum theory of gravity with a holographic dual. Attempting to answer this question requires making sense of the path integral over asymptotically AdS3 geometries.

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## AdS3 Gravity and Holography

### Per Kraus

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## Philosophical Issues in Early Universe Cosmology

### Adam Koberinski and Chris Smeenk

There are many interesting foundational and philosophical issues that become salient in early universe cosmology. One major focus is on issues that arise at the boundaries of distinct theories or frameworks when trying to merge them for describing the early universe. These include issues at the boundary of gravity and statistical physics, as well as gravity and quantum field theory. These foundational issues arise in trying to unify distinct domains of physics. Another major theme of early universe cosmology is the methodological goal of finding dynamical explanations for striking features in the universe. Some examples of such a methodologyinclude the cosmic arrow of time, posits of a Past Hypothesis for the initial state of the universe, inflation, baryogenesis, and emergence of spacetime. There is much philosophical debate about the prospects for success of such a methodology; these are surveyed below.

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## From the Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics to Quantum Technologies

### Olival Freire Junior

Quantum mechanics emerged laden with issues and doubts about its foundations and interpretation. However, nobody in the 1920s and 1930s dared to conjecture that research on such issues would open the doors to developments so huge as to require the term second quantum revolution to describe them. On the one hand, the new theory saw its scope of applications widen in various domains including atoms, molecules, light, the interaction between light and matter, relativistic effects, field quantization, nuclear physics, and solid state and particle physics. On the other hand, there were debates on alternative interpretations, the status of statistical predictions, the completeness of the theory, the underlying logic, mathematical structures, the understanding of measurements, and the transition from the quantum to the classical description. Until the early 1960s, there seemed to be a coexistence between these two orders of issues, without any interaction between them.
From the late 1960s on, however, this landscape underwent dramatic changes. The main factor of change was Bell’s theorem, which implied a conflict between quantum mechanics predictions for certain systems that are spatially separated and the assumption of local realism. Experimental tests of this theorem led to the corroboration of quantum predictions and the understanding of quantum entanglement as a physical feature, a result that justified the 2022 Nobel Prize. Another theoretical breakthrough was the understanding and calculation of the interaction of a quantum system with its environment, leading to the transition from pure to mixed states, a feature now known as decoherence. Entanglement and decoherence both resulted from the dialogue between research on the foundations and quantum predictions. In addition, research on quantum optics and quantum gravity benefitted debates on the foundations. From the early 1980s on, another major change occurred, now in terms of experimental techniques, allowing physicists to manipulate single quantum systems and taking the thought experiments of the founders of quantum mechanics into the labs. Lastly, the insight that quantum systems may be used in computing opened the doors to the first quantum algorithms. Altogether, these developments have produced a new field of research, quantum information, which has quantum computers as its holy grail. The term second quantum revolution distinguishes these new achievements from the first spin-offs of quantum mechanics, for example, transistors, electronic microscopes, magnetic resonance imaging, and lasers. Nowadays the applications of this second revolution have gone beyond computing to include sensors and metrology, for instance, and thus are better labeled as quantum technologies.