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Article

Ultimate Colliders  

Vladimir D. Shiltsev

Understanding the universe critically depends on the fundamental knowledge of particles and fields, which represents a central endeavor of modern high-energy physics. Energy frontier particle colliders—arguably, among the largest, most complex, and advanced scientific instruments of modern times—for many decades have been at the forefront of scientific discoveries in high-energy physics. Because of advances in technology and breakthroughs in beam physics, the colliding beam facilities have progressed immensely and now operate at energies and luminosities many orders of magnitude greater than the pioneering instruments of the early 1960s. While the Large Hadron Collider and the Super-KEKB factory represent the frontier hadron and lepton colliders of today, respectively, future colliders are an essential component of a strategic vision for particle physics. Conceptual studies and technical developments for several exciting near- and medium-term future collider options are underway internationally. Analysis of numerous proposals and studies for far-future colliders indicate the limits of the collider beam technology due to machine size, cost, and power consumption, and call for a paradigm shift of particle physics research at ultrahigh energy but low luminosity colliders approaching or exceeding 1 PeV center-of-mass energy scale.

Article

Quantum Simulation With Trapped Ions  

D. Luo and N. M. Linke

Simulating quantum systems using classical computers encounters inherent challenges due to the exponential scaling with system size. To overcome this challenge, quantum simulation uses a well-controlled quantum system to simulate another less controllable system. Over the last 20 years, many physical platforms have emerged as quantum simulators, such as ultracold atoms, Rydberg atom arrays, trapped ions, nuclear spin, superconducting circuits, and integrated photonics. Trapped ions, with induced spin interactions and universal quantum gates, have demonstrated remarkable versatility, capable of both analog and digital quantum simulation. Recent experimental results, covering a range of research areas including condensed matter physics, quantum thermodynamics, high-energy physics, and quantum chemistry, guide this introductory review to the growing field of quantum simulation.

Article

Ions for the Treatment of Tumors  

Sandro Rossi

Physics and medicine are distinct fields with different objectives, standards, and practices, but with many common points and mutually enriching activities. Hadron therapy, a technique that uses charged particles that also feel the strong interaction, is an area in which scientific insight and technological advancement work hand in hand in an inspirational fashion to leverage their benefits on behalf of patients. The oncological treatment of patients has become a multidisciplinary effort, in which the contribution of specialists from manifold backgrounds is essential, and success can only be achieved by means of a transdisciplinary “fusion,” an integration and overlap across relevant disciplines.