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Geological Characteristics of the Moon  

Long Xiao and James W. Head

Online publication date:
Feb 2020
The geological characteristics of the Moon provide the fundamental data that permit the study of the geological processes that have formed and modified the crust, that record the state and ... More

Hot Planetary Coronas  

Valery I. Shematovich and Dmitry V. Bisikalo

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Planetary Science. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Human Exploration and Development in the Solar System  

Wendell Mendell

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
Emergence of ballistic missile technology after World War II enabled human flight into the Earth’s orbit, fueling the imagination of those fascinated with science, technology, exploration, ... More

Icy Satellites: Interior Structure, Dynamics, and Evolution  

Francis Nimmo

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
This article consists of three sections. The first discusses how we determine satellite internal structures and what we know about them. The primary probes of internal structure are ... More

The Interiors of Jupiter and Saturn  

Ravit Helled

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
Probing the interiors of the gaseous giant planets in our solar system is not an easy task. It requires a set of accurate measurements combined with theoretical models that are used to ... More

International Geopolitics and Space Regulation  

Gianfranco Gabriele Nucera

Online publication date:
May 2019
Outer space has always assumed a relevant geopolitical value due to strategic and economic reasons. Since the beginning of the so-called space age, national space policies have pursued both ... More

International Satellite Law  

Frans von der Dunk

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Subject:
Space Law
International satellite law can best be described as that subset of international space law that addresses the operations of satellites in orbit around the Earth. Excluding, therefore, ... More

International Space Law and Satellite Telecommunications  

Elina Morozova and Yaroslav Vasyanin

Online publication date:
Dec 2019
Subject:
Space Law
International space law is a branch of international law that regulates the conduct of space activities. Its core instruments include five space-specific international treaties, which were ... More

Interplanetary Dust Particles  

George J. Flynn

Scattered sunlight from interplanetary dust particles, mostly produced by comets and asteroids, orbiting the Sun are visible at dusk or dawn as the Zodiacal Cloud. Impacts onto the ... More

Isotopic Dating  

Yuri Amelin

Isotopic dating is the measurement of time using the decay of radioactive isotopes and accumulation of decay products at a known rate. With isotopic chronometers, we determine the time of ... More

Jets in Planetary Atmospheres  

Timothy E. Dowling

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Jet streams, “jets” for short, are remarkably coherent streams of air found in every major atmosphere. They have a profound effect on a planet’s global circulation and have been an enigma ... More

Legal Consequences of the Pollution of Outer Space with Space Debris  

Peter Stubbe

Subject:
Space Law
This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Encyclopedia of Planetary Science. Please check back later for the full article. Space ... More

Lunar and Planetary Geology  

Alexander T. Basilevsky

Online publication date:
May 2018
Lunar and planetary geology can be described using examples such as the geology of Earth (as the reference case) and geologies of the Earth’s satellite the Moon; the planets Mercury, Mars ... More

The Magnetosphere of Saturn  

Sarah Badman

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Planetary Science. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

The Magnetosphere of Uranus  

Xin Cao and Carol Paty

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Planetary Science. Please check back later for the full article. A ... More

Mantle Convection in Terrestrial Planets  

Elvira Mulyukova and David Bercovici

Online publication date:
Mar 2020
All the rocky planets in our solar system, including the Earth, initially formed much hotter than their surroundings and have since been cooling to space for billions of years. The ... More

Martian Ionospheric Observation and Modelling  

Francisco González-Galindo

The Martian ionosphere is a plasma embedded within the neutral upper atmosphere of the planet. Its main source is the ionization of the CO2-dominated Martian mesosphere and thermosphere by ... More

Meteorites  

Kun Wang and Randy Korotev

For thousands of years, people living in Egypt, China, Greece, Rome, and other parts of the world have been fascinated by shooting stars, which are the light and sound phenomena commonly ... More

The Moon and Planets Among the Incas and Other Pre-Hispanic Andean Peoples  

Mariusz Ziółkowski

Online publication date:
Aug 2020
Although the Inca state (ca. 1200–1572 ce) was called the Empire of the Sun, the Moon was, in some respects, an equally important divinity in the official state cult. The regulatory ... More

The Moon and Planets in Ancient Mesopotamia  

Mathieu Ossendrijver

Online publication date:
Jul 2020
In ancient Mesopotamia, all five planets visible to the naked eye were known and studied, along with the Moon, the Sun, the stars, and other celestial phenomena. In all Mesopotamian sources ... More

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