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Space Law and Hazardous Space Debris  

Martha Mejía-Kaiser

Online publication date:
Jan 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Space Law
International space law is a branch of public international law. Norms of treaty law and customary law provide a foundation for the behavior of the subjects of international law performing ... More

Space Law and Weapons in Space  

Sa'id Mosteshar

Online publication date:
May 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Space Law
Although legal principles to govern space were discussed as early as the mid-1950s, they were not formalized until the Outer Space Treaty (OST) 1967 was adopted and came into force. The OST ... More

Space Security Law  

P.J. Blount

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Space Law
The use and exploration of space by humans is historically implicated with international and national security. Space exploration itself was sparked, in part, by the race to develop ... More

Sun, Moon and Planets in Medieval European Folk Tradition  

Þorsteinn Vilhjálmsson

Online publication date:
Aug 2020
The subject of astronomy in folk tradition, or folk astronomy, requires some explication. It is, for instance, not the same as ethnoastronomy, which primarily studies the astronomical ideas ... More

The Surface of Venus  

M.A. Ivanov and J.W. Head

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Planetary Surfaces
This chapter reviews the conditions under which the basic landforms of Venus formed, interprets their nature, and analyzes their local, regional, and global age relationships. The strong ... More

Tectonism of Mercury  

Paul K. Byrne

Online publication date:
May 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Planetary Interiors, Planetary Surfaces
Mercury, like its inner Solar System planetary neighbors Venus, Mars, and the Moon, shows no evidence of having ever undergone plate tectonics. Nonetheless, the innermost planet boasts a ... More

The Formation and Evolution of the Solar System  

Mikhail Marov

The formation and evolution of our solar system (and planetary systems around other stars) are among the most challenging and intriguing fields of modern science. As the product of a long ... More

The Moon and the Planets in Classical Greece and Rome  

Robert Hannah

Online publication date:
Aug 2020
While the moon naturally featured in Mediterranean cultures from time immemorial, principally noted in the earliest literature as a marker of time, time-dependent constructs such as the ... More

The Orbital Architecture of Exoplanetary Systems  

John C. B. Papaloizou

Online publication date:
Jun 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Extrasolar Planets and Systems
The great diversity of extrasolar planetary systems has challenged our understanding of how planets form. During the formation process their orbits are modified while the protoplanetary ... More

The Planetary Boundary Layer of Mars  

Aymeric Spiga

Online publication date:
Oct 2019
The planetary boundary layer of Mars is a crucial component of the Martian climate and meteorology, as well as a key driver of the surface-atmosphere exchanges on Mars. As such, it is ... More

The Planets in Ancient Egypt  

Joachim Friedrich Quack

Online publication date:
May 2019
The five visible planets are certainly attested to in Egyptian sources from about 2000 bce. The three outer ones are religiously connected with the falcon-headed god Horus, Venus with his ... More

The Planets in Aztec Culture  

Susan Milbrath

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
The Spanish chronicles do not mention planets other than Venus, although they compare certain Aztec gods with classical gods such as Jupiter and Mars. Creation myths recorded by the Spanish ... More

The Planets in Pawnee Culture  

Von Del Chamberlain

Online publication date:
Jul 2019
We can be certain that all cultures wondered about the Sun, Moon, planets, and stars, and that they found ways of incorporating what they observed into comprehension of themselves existing ... More

The Structure and Dynamics of the Atmospheres of Pluto and Triton  

Angela M. Zalucha and Jason Cook

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Planetary Atmospheres and Oceans
In addition to ground-based observations beginning in the 1970s, NASA’s Voyager 2 spacecraft flew by Triton in 1989, and NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft flew by Pluto in 2015. Prior to the ... More

The Surface Composition of Terrestrial Planets  

Nicolas Mangold, Jessica Flahaut, and Véronique Ansan

Online publication date:
Aug 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Planetary Surfaces
Planetary surface compositions are fundamental to an understanding of both the interior activity through differentiation processes and volcanic activity and the external evolution through ... More

Tidal Interactions Between Planets and Host Stars  

Gordon Ogilvie

Hundreds of planets are already known to have orbits only a few times wider than the stars that host them. The tidal interaction between a planet and its host star is one of the main agents ... More

Use of Outer Space for Peaceful Purposes  

Martina Smuclerova

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Planetary Science Policy and Planning, Space Law
The great rise and diversification of the use of outer space raises the question of the limitations to space activities. The ultimate restriction posed by space law is the use of outer ... More

Venus in Mesoamerica: Rain, Maize, Warfare, and Sacrifice  

Ivan Šprajc

Online publication date:
Sep 2018
During the last three millennia before the Spanish Conquest, the peoples living in the central and southern parts of modern Mexico and the northern part of Central America evolved into ... More

Vesta and Ceres  

Kevin Righter

Online publication date:
May 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Small Bodies
Asteroids 1 Ceres and 4 Vesta are the two most massive asteroids in the asteroid belt, with mean diameters of 946 km and 525 km, respectively. Ceres was reclassified as a dwarf planet by ... More

Volcanism on Mercury  

David A. Rothery

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Planetary Surfaces
The history of volcanism on Mercury is almost the entire history of the formation of its crust. There are no recognized tracts of intact primary crust analogous to the Moon’s highland ... More

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