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A Selective History of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory  

James D. Burke and Erik M. Conway

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) of the California Institute of Technology had its origins in a student project to develop rocket propulsion in the late 1930s. It attracted funding from ... More

Business, Legal, and Policy Issues in Relation to Increased Private Space Activity  

Mark J. Sundahl

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Throughout the history of human activity in outer space, the role of private companies has steadily grown, and, in some cases, companies have even replaced government agencies as the ... More

Extraterrestrial Resources  

V.V. Shevchenko

Since the early 1990s, in analytical reviews, experts have increasingly been paying attention to the growing scarcity of rare and rare earth metals (REM) necessary for the development of ... More

Human Exploration and Development in the Solar System  

Wendell Mendell

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
Emergence of ballistic missile technology after World War II enabled human flight into the Earth’s orbit, fueling the imagination of those fascinated with science, technology, exploration, ... More

International Geopolitics and Space Regulation  

Gianfranco Gabriele Nucera

Online publication date:
May 2019
Outer space has always assumed a relevant geopolitical value due to strategic and economic reasons. Since the beginning of the so-called space age, national space policies have pursued both ... More

Public Impact of Planetary Science  

Linda Billings

Online publication date:
Jan 2020
The public impact of planetary science, or, alternatively, the public value of planetary science, is poorly understood, as little research has been published on the subject. Public impact ... More

Registration Convention  

Anja Nakarada Pečujlić

Online publication date:
Mar 2020
The adoption and entering into force of the 1975 Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space (also known as the Registration Convention) was another achievement in ... More

Space and Planetary Resources  

Angel Abbud-Madrid

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Planetary Science. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Space Commercialization and the Development of Space Law  

Yun Zhao

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
Shortly after the launch of the first manmade satellite in 1957, the United Nations (UN) took the lead in formulating international rules governing space activities. The five international ... More

Space Governance  

Rajeswari Pillai Rajagopalan

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
Outer space is once again facing renewed competition. Unlike in the earlier decades of space exploration when there were two or three spacefaring powers, by the turn of the 21st century, ... More

Use of Outer Space for Peaceful Purposes  

Martina Smuclerova

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
The great rise and diversification of the use of outer space raises the question of the limitations to space activities. The ultimate restriction posed by space law is the use of outer ... More

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