Figure 1. Schematics of the vertical structure of Venus’ atmosphere, calculated from an analytical atmospheric model from Young et al. (1987). Red curves indicate (a) air temperature and (b) Brunt–Väisälä frequency, and blue curves indicate (a) pressure and (b) westward (east-to-west) zonal wind. Here, positive zonal wind velocity indicates westward wind. The gray band represents the cloud layer. The estimation plotted by the dash curves above the cloud layer has large spatiotemporal variation.