Figure 9. Radial temperature distribution T(r) in the midplane of a protoplanetary disk between 10 and 0.5 AU. 1–4—formation stage between 0.12 and 0.45 Ma (measured in millions of years) from the disk origin; 5, 6—viscous dissipation stage between 0.65 и 1.8 Ma; 7а–7в—stages of dust subdisk compaction and dust clusters formation at about 2 Ma. Temperatures are controlled by the processes of condensation/evaporation of forsterite, enstatite, and iron; maximum values Tsi ≥ 1,600 К at r = 0,1 AU and Tsi ≤ 1,400 К at r = 1,4 AU. Water ice is formed at Tw ~140–160 К under gas pressure Р = 10‒7–10‒4 bar at about 3 AU (break in the dot-dashed curve). The green zone shows the range of possible temperatures at the stage of dust clusters formation.

Source: Marov et al. (2009).